Who are These Clinards?
The Clinard name has evolved over time. Early records of the Pennsylvania settlers show the names spelled Cliner, Kline, Klein, Kynart, Kleinert, Clinart, Clynard, then in the 1790 Federal Census in North Carolina, Clinard. The Germanic translation of klein or kleiner is an adjective – “little” or “small”. There is no translation for Kleinert/Klynert/Kylnart. Like many names, is seems to have made a phonetic evolution and it is seen in many different forms when researching back through the years. Whoever wrote up the documents spelled the name the way it sounded to them. I would think that the language barrier probably prohibited them from asking how they spelled their name in “Deutsch”. Since we’ve ended up with as modern-day Clinards, that’s what I’ll refer to the family name.
The Trail Led to Pennsylvania in the 1700s
Clinard cousins, David V. Clinard and Rick Russell have compiled a great chronological record of facts and deeds on the Clinards from Pennsylvania to North Carolina that you can read in detail at www.reminiscingbooks.com.
Our first TENNESSEE Clinard, Lawrence, (my direct ancestor) is first mentioned in baptism records in Pennsylvania, so he will be my reference person. Lawrence’s father’s name was Johann Philip (sometimes Phillip) Klynart/Kleinert/Clinert/Cliner/Clinard (depending on the document) and he was born around 1720, though research has not yet shown if he was born in Pennsylvania or Germany.
We know that he was the father of Lawrence and the other siblings in North Carolina as his will is recorded in 1802 in the Rowan County, NC Wills, Book E, page 214. and reads as follows:
The Will of (Johann) Philip Clinard North Carolina, Rowan County
In the name of God Amen, I, Philip Clinard of the County of Rowan and State of North Carolina, being very sick and weak in body but of perfect mind and memory, thanks be given to God, calling unto mind the mortality of my body and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die, do make and ordain this my last will and test; that is to say principally and first of all I give and recommend my soul to God and my body to be buried decently and in a Christian burial – at the discretion of my executor nothing doubting at the general resurrection I shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God. And as touching such worldly estate wherewith it has pleased God to bless me in this life.
I give devise and dispose of the same in the following manner and form – I give and bequeath to my son Daniel Clinard all my lands, messuages & tenements, by him freely to be possessed and enjoyed, with this exception viz: that it shall not be in his power to sell or convey it until his youngest daughter shall come of age (to wit Phoebe) and in consideration of his having the above mentioned lands and as he shall furnish his mother every year of her lifetime with the following articles viz twenty bushels of good merchantable wheat, twenty bushels of good Indian corn, six bushels of rice, two fat hogs at the right season, each to weigh upward of a hundred weight, half an acre of flax in suitable good ground, one bushel of salt and one good fat beef or five dollars in cash, the third part of the garden, room sufficient for what potatoes and cotton will be sufficient to herself and food sufficient to winter what cattle and sheep she has, likewise and sufficient quantity of firewood brought handy to her room and likewise he shall take what grain will be sufficient for her to the mill and bring the meal back to her and the said Daniel Clinard shall give his mother full possession of the room that I now live in her lifetime and reasonable privilege of any other of this house on the said place.
2. I give to my wife all my movable effects, i.e. Negroes, cattle for her lifetime, so as not to sell or make away with anything unlawfully and after her decease to be vendued and sold at public sale by my executors to be distributed in the manner hereinafter mentioned. Also I give to my son Daniel Clinard one hundred dollars to be raised out of my movable estate after my wife’s decease. Likewise I give and bequeath to my daughter Phoebe Mock my big Deutch Bible. Likewise I give to Lawrence Clinard, my son, five shillings as his full share. I also give to my grandson Jacob Mock, the son of Philip Mock, twenty five dollars, to his brother John Mock twenty dollars, and to my granddaughter Mary Stanley, the wife of Reuben Stanley the sum of fifteen dollars as their full share of my estate to be raised as above certified. Likewise it is my will and desire that my son Daniel Clinard shall pay unto my son Henry Clinard the sum of fifty dollars out of the land. Now after my just and lawful debts is paid and the aforementioned distributions are made, the remainder after my wife’s death to be equally divided between my following children viz. Jacob Clinard, Phoebe Mock, Peter Clinard, Catherine Miller, Daniel & Henry Clinard. I likewise constitute make and ordain my son Jacob Clinard and my grandson John Mock the son of Devault Mock and Phoebe Mock his wife (or widow now) my executors of this will and test; and I do hereby disallow and disannul all and every other test, wills, legacies, bequeaths & executors by me in any wise before named, willed & bequeathed; ratifying & conforming this and no other to be my last will & test.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand & seal this 23rd day of March A.D. 1802.
Signed, sealed & declared as His
his last will and test; in presence Philip ‘PK’ Clinard
of Ezekiel Brown Mark
With this information, along with deeds and every scrap of information they could dig up, Rick and David followed the trail back to Pennsylvania. I’ll recap some of their factual information to give readers a trail to follow along and then fill in with information I’ve come across to flesh out their facts.
Johann Philip Kleinert’s father: Hans Kleinerd
The first records indicate the family was living in Weisenburg, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, today a suburb of Allentown. Rick and David’s research revealed the father of Johann Phillip Kleinert/Clinard to be Hans Cliner/John Kleinerd through a land warrant:
29th September 1774, Land Patent book P2 page 126, Sept 27, 1783, “Know ye that in consideration of the monies heretofore paid by HANS CLINER to the state proprietaries at the granting of the warrant herein after mentioned……..there is granted by the said commonwealth to the said Peter Klein, a certain tract of land on Maconge Run, in Weisenberg Twp, formerly in the County of Bucks, now Northampton, which said tract of land was surveyed by virtue of a warrant dated the 13th August 1734 granted to the said HANS CLINER, who by his will devised the said tract of land to his son PHILIP KLEINHART, who by deed dated the 29th September 1774 conveyed the said tract of land to the said Peter Klein” (Research Note: Hans Cliner was John Kleinerd)
The earliest record of Hans Cliner in Rick and David’s research goes back to 1734: Land Survey Warrants: Hans CLINER July 13, 1734 100 acres adjoining Casper WISTER’s land Macungy, Bucks Co., PA
The will of Hans Kleinerd /John Kleinerd
David Clinard, our Georgia Clinard cousin who has been researching the family for years, emailed me this addition, which I had not previously seen. It is the will of “John Kleinerd” and names his son, Philip and a daughter Anna and wife Jarly. David sent me the copies of the original will document pages but they are so hard to read I’m just going to place the transcription.
This is how he discovered the will in his research: “I discovered the John Kleinerd will through a Family Treemaker CD which had a close name variation listed. I then did some research in the local genealogy library in Macon GA which I’ve been told is one of the very best research archives in the SE USA. I can’t remember if they led me to the will or if they gave me the info to write to the PA archives. Whatever, I got it!”
When reading this translation remember it was written in the 1750s and use phonetics to decipher the weird spellings that had Germanic origins, ie: fris malck Kouer would translate to fresh milk cow…
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The Settlement of Bucks County, Pennsylvania
An extraction from “Histories of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon, In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,” by Alfred Mathews, published in 1884 describes this area as: “Weisenburg Township was formed out of the “Backparts of Macunjy” and part of the Allemangel, and was erected as a township in 1753. Weisenburg was named for the city Weissenburg, a fortress and town in Alsace, from the vicinity in which the majority of the townspeople had come. The first settlements took place in 1734, on and around the highlands in the vicinity of Ziegel Church.”
When googling the book to see if I could find more information, I discovered there was actually a digital copy online available to read free at: http://openlibrary.org/books/OL6914334M/History_of_the_counties_of_Lehigh_and_Carbon_in_the_commonwealth_of_Pennsylvania.
For those interested in learning about the Pennsylvania and earlier history, this is a very informative read. The Chapter “Pennsylvania Germans” gives an overview of the people’s settlement, characteristics, religion and education, language translations and much more, which I will highlight at the end of this chapter. For those that would like to learn more about the early families in Lehigh County, visit the Lehigh County Historical Society’s online site at: http://www.lchs.museum/index.htm
Philip Kleinert was a founding member of Ziegel Church
According to the Clinard family baptism records, they must have been members of the Ziegel congregation. Their children’s baptisms range from 1757 until 1769 and are recorded in the Ziegel Church records.
June 12, 1757: Anna Maria Klinert, daughter of Philip Kleinert (1802 will) and Catherine, is baptized in Weissenberg, Lehigh County. Ref: Ziegel Church records.
March 12, 1759: Philip Kleinert, (Jr.), the son of Philip Kleinert and Catharine is baptized at Ziegel Church in Weissenberg Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Ref: Records of Ziegel Church, Pennsylvania Births, Lehigh County, 1734 – 1800 by John Humphrey.
April 6, 1761: Daniel Kleinert, son of Philip Kleinert and Catherine, is baptized in Weissenberg. Ref: Ziegel Church records.
1765: Catherine Klinert, daughter of Philip Klinert, is born in Maxetanien, Pennsylvania. Ref: DAR records.
(**This is our Tennessee Lawrence**): March 15, 1769: Johann Lorentz (Lawrence) Kleinert, son of Philip and Catherine Kleinert is born in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Ref: Rev. Daniel Schumacher’s Baptismal Register 1756 – 1773.
Note that several of the siblings marry Hinkle (probably also siblings) and Mock brothers
The children of Johann Philip Kleinert are:
JACOB (marries Catherine Deck Hinkle?)
PHOEBE (marries Devault/Dewalt/Devolt Mock)
ANNA MARIA (marries Phillip Mock)
DANIEL (marries Mary Hinkle)
PETER (marries Sophie Sossaman)
CATHARINE (marries Frederick Miller)
LAWRENCE (marries Rosina Miller)
HENRY (marries Mary Rosenbaum Hinkle)
(**Not sure what happens to Philip Jr that is named in Baptism Records??)
Kline’s Mill – land formerly owned by Johann Philip Kleinert/Clinard
From David and Rick’s research: About the year 1770, Peter Kline bought 260 acres of land from Philip Kleinert in the southern part of Weisenberg township. A miller by trade, Peter Kline erected a mill on the property about 1780. Kline’s Mill is situated on Schaeffer’s Run, in the southern part of the township. (source: “History of Lehigh County, PA” Chapter XLVI Weissenberg Township, page 996.)
I searched online for more information about Kline’s Mill and ran across this website that also references the “History of Lehigh County, PA” book and give an overview on the Peter Klein that bought Johann Philip Kleinert’s land. We don’t know their relationship yet, but there are lots of name similarities and they are living in the same neighborhood, obviously know each other and are founding members of the local church.
In History of Lehigh County, PA by C. R. Roberts, 1914.
At Bethlehem Public Library . Kline Family biographies pp. 679-685
- p. 679. Philip Wendel Klein, the ancestor of this family, was a native of Germany, and emigrated to America on the ship Phoenix, arriving at Philadelphia on October 12, 1744. He settled in Weisenberg Township, on a farm about a mile northeast of Seipstown. As early as 1746 his name appears in this section, and on Dec. 5, 1753, he secured a warrant for land, which he sold to his son, John Jacob, on Nov. 10, 1761. Philip Wendel Klein was one of the organizers of the Lutheran congregation at Ziegel Church, where his name appears in 1750. His sons were: John Adam, John Jacob, Lorentz, and Peter.
- pg. 681. Peter Kline, youngest son of Philip Wendel, was born April 27, 1741, and died December 22, 1819. He married, in 1763, Margaret, daughter of Christopher and Margaret Stettler. She was born Dec. 13, 1741, and died Feb. 26, 1815. Peter Kline bought 260 acres of land from Philip Kleinert, in the southern part of Weisenberg township. A miller by trade, he erected a mill on the property about 1780, which he sold, with part of his farm, in 1803, to his son Lorentz. Peter Kline had these children: Margaret, born 1768; Lorentz; Jacob; Jonathan; Henry; Maria, wife of Michael Acker; and Mrs. George Smith. Lorentz Kline was born Nov. 12, 1773, and married Magdalena Knauss. They had no children. He was the owner of Kline’s Mill for many years and died June 15, 1868
When searching for more information about Ziegel Church’s “Rev. Daniel Schumacher’s Baptismal Register 1756 – 1773” noted on my Lorentz Kleinert’s birth information I found this site:
“The first settlers in this parish came from the Palatinate, Hesse, Württemberg and other regions of Europe, probably immigrating between the years 1725 and 1740. Immigration to this area must have occurred at various times during these years. The following were among the first settlers: Adam Brausz, Ludwig Reichard, Bernhard Schmidt, Nicolaus Mayor, Peter Haas, Thomas Benfiel, Johannes Schlegel, Jörch Schaefer, Carl Corn, Urban Frieble, John Schaefer, Daniel Knausz, John Merkel, Michael Hotz, Johannes Hartmann, Johannes Hergerether, Heinrich Rück, Egüthius Grimm, Zacharias Heller, Jacob Grimm, Heinrich Grimm, Friedrich Windisch, Adam Weber, Andreas Sassenmanshausen [handwritten annotation: “2nd generation”], Georg Baÿer, Johann Nicolaus Gift, Michael Olt, Michael Brauch, Heinrich Gackenbach, Johannes Gackenbach, Friedrich Baÿer, Melchior Ziegler, Philipp Breinig, Peter Heimbach, Bartholomäus Miller, Georg Adam Leipensperger, Jacob Kuntz, Albrecht Stimmel, David Muszgenug, Johannes Lins, Michael Confert, Heinrich Confert, J. Adam Gift, Jost Heinrich Sassenmanshausen, Philipp Kleinert, Georg Schumacher, Valentin Gramlich, Melchior Seib, Johannes Vogel, Heinrich Miller, Johann Anton Walther, Jacob Kümmel, Johannes Derr, Franz Stimmel, Marte Kreutler, Johannes Hermann, Conrath Neff, Johannes Hieder, Heinrich Haas, Adam Schmidt, Johannes Volk, Jost Kop, Johannes Gebel, Friedrich Hirsch, Peter Trexler, Carl Gackenbach, Jacob Schumacher, Philipp Wendel Klein, Bernhard Schmidt, Michael Bauermann, Melchior Kloss, Johannes Bär *, and others.
The first immigrants moved through the rich valley that is now called “Macungie,” because they found no water there. They settled on the higher ground from which Weisenberg Township was later formed. That region [Macungie] was not settled until later years. Because these earliest immigrants neither brought along any preachers from Europe, nor could they get any here in those early days, they held worship services in their own houses for a long time. From time to time, they were also visited by preachers who lived far away. These visiting preachers would administer Holy Communion and baptize the children. In the years 1750, Adam Brausz, Peter Haas, Jacob Grim, Heinrich Grimm and others met to organize and thus founded this parish. They chose a suitable piece of land at a central location between the rather widely scattered inhabitants and enthusiastically got to work on building a church. On July 29th of that same year of 1750, the church they had built was dedicated to the service of God, according to both Lutheran and Reformed customs, for the perpetual use of both confessions. Thus it became an evangelical Lutheran and evangelical Reformed union church. At the dedication of the church, the Rev. Philipp Jacob Michael preached for the Reformed side, and the Rev. Jacob Friedrich Schertlin preached for the Lutheran side. Both preachers were then also accepted as pastors. — On March 29th, 1753, three years later (after the church was built), Adam Brausz took out a warrant on the piece of land on which they had built, which included 41 acres and 63 rods. On April 4th, 1771, Adam Brausz conveyed this piece of land to Peter Haas, Jacob Grimm, and Heinrich Grimm for the use of the Ziegels parish and released it on April 12th of the same year. — At the same time the church was built, a schoolhouse was built for the instruction of the youth. When this schoolhouse burned down in later years, a new, even larger schoolhouse was built from stone. — So the congregation held its public worship here for 45 years, while the number of members increased considerably. Despite all adversity, these old fathers held fast to their church and doctrine and remained true to their German customs. Even the Revolutionary War, in which many participated, and from which some never returned, could not destroy this.x In the times when the Indians of this region were hostile, several families usually stuck together, thus living in a more neighborly fashion, so they could help one another more readily. [annotation added later:] x The moral decay began long before this time.
“History of Lehigh County, PA” Chapter XLVI Weissenberg Township, pages 976-977) offers glimpses into what David and Rick believe to be our ancestors and other affiliated families through their church records.
“Ziegel Church ~ Many of the emigrants settled on the slopes and dales of the ridge on which the church stands, and built their log cabins near springs and creeks. Hence, early in the beginning of the 18th century the origin of the Ziegel congregation was caused, making it one of the oldest congregations in the county. The organization of the congregation was effected in the year 1745. Its property was bought a few years later, and the building of the church occurred still later. In the meantime services were held in the houses of the members where sermons were read by the schoolmaster, and occasionally by a minister from a distance ……..Among the families that organized the congregation were: Adam Braus, Ludwig Reichard, Bernhard Schmidt, Nicolaus Mayer, Peter Haus, Georg Schaefer, Karl Koon, Urban Friebel, Johann Merkel, Daniel Knauss, Michael Shatz, Johannes Hergerehter, Egidius Grimm, Zacharias Heller, Friedrich Windisch, Adam Weber, George Boyer, Johann Nicol Gift, Georg Wendel Zimmerman, Michael Old, Heinrich Gagenbach, Melchior Ziegler, PHILIPP KLEINERT, Peter Heimbach, Bartholomaus Miller, Georg Adam Liebensperger, Jacob Kuntz, Albrecht Stimmel, David Muszgenug, Michael Confert, Andreas Sassamanshausen, Georg Schumacher, Melchior Sieb, Heinrich Miller, Johannes Vogel, Jacob Kimmel, Johannes Hermann, Conrath Neff, Johannes Heider, Adam Schmidt, Philipp Wendell Klein, Johannes Bar, Yost Schaeffer, Philipp Fenstermacher, Friederich Hirsch, Jacob Acker, Georg Falk, Daniel Stettler, Jacob Weitknecht, Johannes Doll. (source: “History of Lehigh County, PA” Chapter XLVI Weissenberg Township, pages 976-977). in 1751 in Maconce (Macungie) area of Pennsylvania.
I looked up the Ziegel Union Church online to see what more I could find and their website: http://ziegelschurch.org shows they are celebrating their 250-year history. I found their history under “About” and it gives a good condensed version of the new settlers to America.
“Nestled in the gently rolling hills of Weisenberg Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, Ziegels Union Church has been ministering to the community for over 250 years. The first settlers, mostly Germans fleeing the Palatine area, began settlements in the region in 1743. Until they could establish houses of worship, they often met in private homes.
In 1750, our congregations erected the first church, a log building, and dedicated it on the 29th of July that same year. From the start, Ziegels was established as a Union Church, meaning it was home to two congregations who shared the care and expenses of the church. Originally established by the Evangelical Lutheran and German Reformed traditions, the church today is home to their descendants, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the United Church of Christ (UCC). The name Ziegels derives from the German word ziegel or tile as the first log church had a tile roof, typical of many structures at that time in Germany. In addition to the church, the congregations made provisions for a schoolhouse and a “spacious burying ground.”
By 1795, the congregations decided to build a new church as they had outgrown the log church. Members decided to relocate the church, but only after a “throwing of hats,” where members tossed their hat as a vote to one of two possible locations. The stone church had a wine glass pulpit with an altar shaped like the Ark of the Covenant before it. For “eight hundred and fifty dollars in Gold and Silver Money,” the church commissioned the son of the Lutheran minister to build its first organ in 1810. The stone church was replaced in 1864 by a large brick church with a towering white steeple. This steeple attracted a “shaft of electric fluid” in 1887 and burnt to the ground. Another brick church was erected on the same location and like its predecessor, it too burned after its steeple was struck by lightening.
Within the remains of the fourth church, the present church was constructed in 1908. The original building had gallery seating and the rear gallery was home to the organ. An “eye of God,” painted above the arch at the altar, surveyed the worshippers. The addition and renovations of 1956 changed the sanctuary to its present appearance. The congregations added an additional wing in 1990 to provide additional Sunday School classrooms and office space.
The year 2000 marked the 250th anniversary of our first church building. The congregations celebrated our joint religious heritage throughout the course of that year. The legacy of our past has inspired our mission for today and tomorrow. Ziegels Union Church invites you to join us in continuing to provide a beacon of God’s love within our community and the world.”
Church records show that the Clinards were members of the Zeigel Church, 9990 Ziegel Church Road, Breinigsville, Penn. According to “Early History of the Reformed Church in Pennsyvlania” written and published by Daniel Miller in Reading, Penn., in 1906, “Several churches were originally called “Ziegel church,” because they were covered with tiles, the German term for tiles being Ziegel.
In “Journal of the Department of History, Volume VII, 1913-1914, published by The Presbyterian Historical Society of Philadelphia in 1914, “The first organization of Reformed people took place in this region at the “Ziegel Church,” in what is now Weisenberg township. The constituition of the congregation is dated “Macunschy, July 6, 1750.” According to Rev. Wm. Helffrich, for many years pastor of the congregation, the old church recod, now unfortunately burnt, contained baptisms up to the fourth decade of the eighteenth century. The first church was built in 1749.”
“Histories of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon, In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,”
by Alfred Mathews, published in 1884
On pg. 23-24 it is noted: “Several thousand Germans had entered Pennsylvania prior to 1689. From this year on a steady stream of immigration set in. In 1742 their number was given at one hundred thousand, and in 1783 at two hundred and eighty thousand. They settled in that part of the State which is now included in Lehigh, Northampton, Monroe, Carbon, Berks, parts of Bucks, Montgomery, Lebanon, Lancaster, York, Dauphin, Schuylkill, Northumberland, Snyder, Union, Columbia, Centre, and other counties, ultimately extending even into Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. They came from Rhenish Bavaria, Baden, Alsace, Wurtemberg, Switzerland and Darmstadt.”
“The early German settlers were farmers, and while lands were cheap, they purchased extensive tracts, always selecting the best. To this day it is well-known fact that all the best lands in the eastern part of the State are owned by the Germans and their descendants, and that frequently the English settlers are displaced by the steady encroachment of the Germans upon them.” (pg. 24)
On page 25, I love the section “Their Sayings and Songs”- It has the Germanic spelling of the saying and then the translation and explanation and includes several pages. Here’s a sampling I found amusing…
Won mer der esel nennt kumt er garennt. “When the ass is named he comes trotting along.” When a person is named in conversation he often comes”
Wie mers mocht so hut mers. “As one makes it, so he has it. That is, a person must expect results in accordance with his actions or deportment.
Wer lauert an der wond, haert sei egne schont. “He that listens by the wall hears his own disgrace.” Eavesdroppers hear their own faults descanted on.
Es kummt net af die graes awh, sunscht kennt en kuh en haws fonga. “It does not depend on the size, otherwise a cow could catch a rabbit.” A small person can often accomplish as much as a large one.
Wer awhalt gewinnt. “Whoever perseveres succeeds.”
De morga schtund hut gold in mund. “The morning hour has its mouth filled with gold.” “Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy and wealthy and wise.” The early bird catches the worm.”
In the section “Their Traits of Character” on page 32,
the author is complimentary of these hard-working immigrants.
“The greater part of the Pennsylvania Germans are farmers, hardy and industrious tillers of the soil. They are robust, strong, healthy, and hard workers. In many of the rural districts women assist the men in farm-work. Though not seen following the plow, it is nevertheless a common sight to see them engaged in raking hay, binding grain, hoeing and husking corn, milking cows, and the like. If it be a failing, their failing is that they work too much. Ofttimes we have seen young ladies whose parents were worth their thousands engaged as servants, waiting on tables at boarding-school where their brothers were attending as students. While these women may not be experts at the piano, and yet sometimes are, they understand practically how to bake bread, fry beefsteak, and prepare a most sumptuous and tempting meal. Every mother educates her daughters in the art of housekeeping before they are permitted to leave the maternal roof.
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Why did they leave Pennsylvania and go to North Carolina?
We don’t know exactly what made the Clinards and Hinkles move south, but the volatile Indian unrest might have had something to do with it, or possibly the lure of new land…
The Lehigh County Log Cabin Trail website offers a bit of history on the Indian unrest and is a history tour that people can go visit today: http://www.lehighcountylogcabintrail.org/
“The trail begins with the Southern Section, then moves north to the Central Section, continues into the Northern Section and the Blue Mountain (Kittatinny Ridge) forming the northern border of Lehigh County, then returns to three buildings in the northwestern part of the Central Section where the trail ends.
During part of the eighteenth century the Blue Mountain (Kittatinny Ridge) formed the northern edge of the American frontier. In several locations, from 1753-1763, settlers living on the “Frontier of America” in Pennsylvania were attacked by Native Americans resulting in some settlers being killed, tortured, and/or captured.
In 1755, for example, 56 settlers were killed and 10 taken prisoner by Native Americans in today’s Albany Township (Berks County), and Lynn and Heidelberg Townships (Lehigh County). The attacks were rooted in unfair land dealings perpetrated on the Native Americans by the sons of William Penn via the Walking Purchase (1736), land use conflicts during the French and Indian War (1753-1763), and incidents such as the refusal of one colonial settler to provide food for Native Americans needing provisions.
As a result of the hostilities, a series of forts were constructed approximately every 20 miles apart along the mountain between the Delaware River and the Susquehanna River to provide shelter and safety to frontier settlers in times of Native American unrest. Three of these forts were located within (or close to) Lehigh County—Fort Everett just south of the mountain in Lynn Township, Fort Franklin just north of the mountain in Schuylkill County, and Fort Lehigh overlooking the north entrance to Lehigh Gap in Carbon County.
Some parts of the Lehigh County Log Cabin Trail, in the Central Section, are routed along part of our county’s delightful covered bridge tour which adds further historic charm and educational value as one explores the log cabin trail.”
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The next chronological notation from David Clinard and Ruck Russells’ research notes that:
“Peter Hinkle is licensed to keep a public house (boarding house) in Rowan County, North Carolina, his securities are William Spurgin and Hohn Lewis Beard. Ref: 3:365, Minutes of the Court of the Ordinary, Rowan County, 1763-1774. (The Clinards and Hinkle family are linked by marriages.)”
According to Clinard and Russell’s research, “About 1774, Philip Kleinert and most of family migrate to North Carolina and settle in the Salisbury area that is home to a large number of Moravians and other German settlers.”
The Hinkles and Clinards must have known each other in Pennsylvania, as Jacob and Daniel both married Hinkle girls and that would seem the reason they followed Peter Hinkle’s family to North Carolina.
More on the Hinkles and Mocks later… along with the families settlement in North Carolina…