Family History & Genealogy

Northumberland England with the Ogles

I’ve recently been digging around in the Tennessee Ogle (s) family history, so thought it would be a good time to post our Ogles Reunion trip pictures from our trip in 2008 to England. As several of Wally’s great uncles and cousins were going on the trip to visit the Ogles family history, I was able to convince him to go along.

It was a wonderful trip, featuring pubs, manor houses, castles, churches, chapels, cemeteries and quaint historic towns. I’ll break by day as I took lots of photos – as always. Hope you enjoy traveling along to visit the Ogles ancestral sites! They are planning another reunion trip in 2014 for those that missed this one.

We stayed at Longhirst Hall, just a few miles outside of Morpeth, England – this is a photo from their website.

Eng, Longhirst Hall, Morpeth

eng-longhirst hall ext

eng-wally & jim and english blokes, long

I’m including a map so you’ll know where we went – Northumberland is in the northeast corner of England, close to the Scottish border. Wally and I flew into Edinburgh, Scotland the week before the England reunion and drove all over Scotland for a week before driving down to Morpeth just above Newcastle on Tyne. It was in July of 2008 and we had packed for summer. Unfortunately it was COLD so I hit every charity thrift shop I saw and found some fabulous handmade Scottish wool sweaters for under $10 to keep me warm.


On Monday morning we packed onto the bus and Hexham Abbey was our first stop of the day. It was established in the 7th century A.D. and contained an Ogle Chapel where ancestors were buried. This is a photo outside the Abbey with Wally waiting for the rest of the group. Here’s a website to learn more about Northumberland and the town of Hexham.

eng-wally at hexham abbey

Eng-Hexham abbey, wally

hexham abbey, ogles chantry letter

After touring the Abbey we had free time to wander the streets of Hexham and get some lunch. We chose a little fish and chips takeout place and it was great.

eng-jim on hexham street

Engl, fish and chips

Some of the cousins like to ham it up and are not afraid to draw attention to themselves just for the entertainment factor. ; )

Eng-jim shirtless at Hexham abbey

eng-jim on ground, hexham

eng-Uncle george, mark, wayne ogles

eng-wally with wall-e, hexham town

Wally and Jim Ogles, UK

wally, shawn, uncle jimmy eng, bowling

We enjoyed watching the lawn bowling in the town of Hexham

eng- lawn bowling

Our next stop after leaving Hexham was the Prudhoe Castle that had some Ogle connection. It was neat to wander around the grounds and imagine ourselves back in time…

eng-prudhoe castle sign

Eng- prudhoe castle w:crosses

engl castle gristmill, ferns

eng-prudhoe castle

eng-inside prudhoe castle

Engl castle flower closeup

Learn more at:

On the way back to Longhirst Hall we stopped off for a quick peek at this Roman site.

eng-corbridge sign

eng-Corbridge roman town

Then it was time for cocktails, dinner and rest for the next day of touring.

Eng, Longhirst, family drinks

Eng, Longhirst bldg

Coming up… Ogle Castle, coat-of-arms, chapels and cemeteries…

Eng, Ogle coat of arms

Categories: Family History: OGLES, MANNING Manchester, Tennessee, Travel: ENGLAND | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Clinards & Cemeteries, 1700s in Abbotts Creek, N.C.

I had been told by a North Carolina Clinard cousin Rick Russell that many of our early Clinards were buried in the Abbotts Creek neighborhood where they had homesteaded in the late 1700s near High Point, N.C. After years of researching and reading about them, I wanted to see where they had lived, so we made the short drive from Winston-Salem towards High Point, N.C., to the community of Abbotts Creek.

Here’s a 1780 North Carolina map with the area surrounding Abbotts Creek

Rowan Co 1780 map

And here’s what it looks like today as you drive through the neighborhood…beautiful farm land!

Abbotts Creek wheat field

We headed to the Abbotts Creek Primitive Baptist Church and cemetery to find some Clinard relatives… the brick church building itself isn’t that old, but the families have been worshipping and burying their loved ones here since 1756.

Abbotts Creek Primitive Baptist Church

AC Prim Baptist Ceme Natl Reg marker

AC Prim Baptist Cemetery far view

AC Prim Baptist Cemetery from below

The intricately carved headstones were lovingly carved by a highly skilled stone mason – I’ve never seen any as beautiful as these. They are works of art in themselves. I was contacted in October 2017 by Hazel Evert Inglis, who had read my blog and saw where I had noted I wished I knew who had created these amazing headstones. In her family research, she had discovered many ancestors buried in the cemetery, and talked to Rev. Roy Cantrell when she visited the cemetery.

Here are several links she provided  to me on the origins of the headstones. This cemetery is historically significant in North Carolina for the intricate designs of the headstones. Follow these links to learn the history of the headstones, those known to be buried here, and the connection with the local cabinetmaking family the Clodfelters/Gladfelters whose outstanding work is featured in the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts (MESDA) collection today.

Here’s Philip Mock, born in 1784, died in 1824, in the “pierced” headstone style.

AC Prim Baptist, Philip Mock, 1784-1822

AC Prim Baptist Cemetery headstones 2

AC Prim Baptist Cemetery headstones

Mom practicing her cemetery “dowsing” skills. As she walks over a grave, the stick will bend down to indicate a hollowness below. She can also find underground water sources doing this. This is a useful special skill for the keepers of old cemeteries, so they know where unmarked graves are and don’t dig them up when digging new graves.

AC Prim Baptist, Carol dowsing

AC Prim Baptist, Charles Clinard, 1794-1862

AC Prim Baptist, Clinard tombstone

AC Prim Baptist, decorative cut headstones

AC Prim Baptist, headstones and flowers

AC Prim Baptist, John H. Clinard, 1868

AC Prim Baptist, Peter A Clinard 1834?-1836

AC Prim Baptist, Sarah Clinard, 1795, wife of Charles

AC Prim Baptist, Sarah Eliza Clinard

AC Primitive Baptist Natl Reg marker,

Across the street is a bigger church, the Mission Baptist Church and Cemetery, where more relatives are interred.

AC Mission Bap church, ceme

AC Mission Bap, church, ceme

This was active territory during the American Revolution and the troop movements are mentioned many times in the Moravian Records.

AC Mission Bap, Rev War marker

AC Mission Bap Cemetery, dogwood

AC Mission Bap, DB Clinard 1845-1923

AC Mission Bap, Emma Clinard Payne 1866-1950

AC Mission Bap, Mary Clinard 1904?

AC Mission Bap, Spurgeon & Clinard headstones

AC Mission Bap, William Clinard 1822?-1877

AC Mission Bap, Wm Rowan Clinard, 185?-1899

I’m sure there are many more relatives I didn’t photograph, but our time was limited.

As we had been driving down Abbotts Creek Church Road, I noticed a Clinard Oil sign and stopped in at the house next door to inquire where I might find some cousins (I was feeling adventurous that day). It so happened that we had found the home of Charlie Jack Clinard.

He only knew a few generations back and didn’t have any old pictures, but one of our Clinard cousins, Elizabeth Hayworth, who lives in the area, knew his family history and helped me out.

According to Elizabeth, “He is descended from Johann Philip Kleinert/Clinard to Jacob Clinard to  Andrew D. Clinard, Sr. and Lydia Brown. Her father was Ezekiel Brown, but we don’t know her mother’s name, even though there’s an Ezekiel Brown Bible for records.

Their son Hiram Fletcher Clinard 1845-1912 and wife Desdemona Charles
Their son Edward Jackson Clinard and wife Josie Craven
Their son Raymond Edgar Clinard 1897-1954 and wife Mary Spurgeon”
Then today’s Charlie Jack Clinard…

Jack Clinard in chair, Abbotts Creek, NC

This was his “Grandpappy’s” chair that had been handed down to him.

Jack Clinard's antique chair

Here is a photo that is on of Andrew D. Clinard Sr., 1793-1877. This would be Charlie Jack Clinard’s great-great grandfather.

Andrew D. Clinard Sr.Jack’s son Kelly lives in the old Spurgeon House just a few house’s past Jack and Laura’s on Abbotts Creek Road on the left. He told me “It was built in 1847 by slaves.” The old spring house sits on the hill below and the house “front” faced out over it.

The Spurgeon house built in 1847.

Spurgeon house front view

spurgeon house side view

Spurgeon house spring house

Spurgeon house view to spring house

Spurgeon house back view

Spurgeon house cut stone, wellhouse

Here are some of the neighbors, along with our Clinards and associated families on the 1700s tax lists that cousin Rick Russell found in his research, along with an 1808 map.

1778 Rowan Co, NC Tax List, Clinard

Clinard 1798 Rowan Co Tax List, Capt Harmon

Abbotts Creek is in the top right corner of the map.

1808 Davidson Co, NC map

Here’s some background history on the community and families of Abbotts Creek from the book Davidson County, North Carolina. Cousin Rick Russell had made copies of the pages about Abbotts Creek and it has lots of great information.

And a final map of the area when it was later known as “Brown Town”. Abbotts Creek Church is noted in the bottom right corner. Not sure of the source of this map – it was among Rick Russell’s research copies.

Browntown:Abbotts Creek, 1842 map

That’s it for now. Hope you enjoyed your visit with our North Carolina cousins!

Categories: Family History: CLINARD, NC to Robertson Co, Tenn | Tags: , , , | 6 Comments

Moravian Bethania and Old Salem, N.C., Clinard History

Bethania and Old Salem, North Carolina

Continuing with my family history quest, after leaving Virginia it was on to Winston-Salem, N.C. and Old Salem for the next leg of our trip. Just outside of Winston-Salem we made a quick detour to visit Bethania, the first Moravian village established in 1759.

Bethania est 1759 sign

Bethanian Moravian church

Bethania Moravian house 3:4 view

I had Moravian records from Salem showing that my ggggggrandfather, Lawrence Clinard married Rosina Miller in Salem Tavern Feb. 24, 1789. I booked a few nights at the Augustus T. Zevely Inn in Old Salem so we could be in the midst of the history. The Salem Tavern is located just across the street from the inn. The inn was very nice and we enjoyed the historic ambiance.

Old Salem Zevely Inn entrance

Salem Aug Zevely Inn sitting room

salem aug zeveley inn, dining room

salem, aug zevely mural:chair

salem, aug. zevely breakfast room

Dinner is still served at the Salem Tavern, where you dine by candlelight for dinner, just as Lawrence and Rosina must have 224 years ago on their wedding day. The restaurant today is in the yellow building and the Tavern is the brick building.

salem tavern sign

Salem Tavern

Old Salem Tavern, brick

Feb 22, 1789, their banns were announced …

Lau & Rosina Kleinert banns, pg 2290, vol 5? Fries

The dining Tavern today (below)

Old Salem Tavern dining house

Some snapshots around Old Salem…

salem gunsmith shop

The Moravian Church in Old Salem. You can learn more about the church, religion and their archives resources at:

Old Salem Moravian Church closeup

The Moravian Archives

Old Salem Moravian Archives

My Lawrence Clinard and his wife, Rosina Miller had a little girl that drowned in their spring and was buried in God’s Acre in 1791. It was noted on March 5-7, 1791 in the Moravian Records… We think that Rosina Miller’s father, Friedrich Miller was probably Moravian.

Lau Kleinert dau dies, pg. 2355, Vol 5, Fries

Old Salem God's Acre marker

Old Salem God's Acre entrance

Old Salem God's Acre

Salem, Moravian church

T. Bagge’s store

salem, T. Bagge store

Old Salem T. Bagge info

The Bakery

Old Salem Bakery

Old Salem bldg top, slate roof

Old Salem brick building side view

Old Salem gardens

Old Salem houses, yard

Old Salem ladies walking

Old Salem little brick church

Old Salem log building

Old Salem log schoolhouse?

Old Salem oven

Old Salem pink & white building

Old Salem wisteria arbor

Old Salem yellow & green house

Old Salem yellow barn

Old Salem yellow bldg vert

You can learn more about Old Salem at:

Next stop is a visit out to Abbotts Creek where our Clinards homesteaded and still live. We’ll visit two early cemeteries where the Clinards are buried and meet a Clinard cousin!

Categories: Family History: CLINARD, NC to Robertson Co, Tenn, Travel: CAROLINAS & GEORGIA | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

Henry Clinard (son of Johann Philip Kleinert) in Virginia

Abingdon, Virginia – Henry Clinard in Washington and Wythe County

A few years ago I decided to track down my Clinard family history in person. The trail led through Abingdon, Virginia and then on to Old Salem and Abbotts Creek, North Carolina. Our first stop was Abingdon to visit their archives and court house to look up records on Henry Clinard (1770s – ?), brother to my ggggggrandfather, Lawrence Clinard and son of Johann Phillip Kleinart/Clinard (1725-1802).

My mother loves history as well, so I took her along for the ride. This was the “Tavern” in downtown Abingdon, Va was built in 1779 and would have been there when Henry and Mary lived in the Abingdon area.

According to their website at:  “The Tavern, the oldest of Abingdon’s historic buildings and one of the oldest west of the Blue Ridge, was built in 1779. It was used from it’s beginning as a tavern and overnight inn for stagecoach traveler’s. The Tavern has had such guests as Henry Clay; Louis Philippe, King of France; President Andrew Jackson; and Pierre Charles L’Enfant, designer of Washington D.C.”

The Tavern, Abingdon, VA

We booked a couple of nights at the Shepherd’s Joy B & B on the edge of town and enjoyed our stay. They had beautiful antiques and their meals were delightful. I didn’t take many pictures but you can see more on their website at

shepherds breakfast

shepherd's joy buffet

We visited the Washington County, Virginia Historic Society where I found a little bit of information on Henry Clinard and his wife, Mary Rosenbaum Hinkle Clinard. Here is what we know about Henry. He was in Virginia as early as February 1797 when he marries Mary Rosenbaum Hinkle in Virginia on Dec. 7, 1790.

She had previously married John Hinkle on Feb. 26, 1790 in Rowan Co., N.C. (not sure how he fits in with the Rowan Co Hinkles – perhaps he was the son of Peter Hinkle (1743-1775) and a sibling to Mary, Anthony and Peter?). We don’t know when or where he dies but she re-marries 10 months later to Henry.

It would appear that Henry Clinard/Clynard was the first of Johann Phillip Kleinert’s sons to move away from the Abbotts Creek, N.C. community where they lived. Wythe County, Virginia is about 80 miles from Winston-Salem, N.C.

My Lawrence left N.C. about 1804 after the death of his father and would have had to go through Virginia and the Cumberland Gap to get to Tennessee. Perhaps he stopped off to see Henry, his brother along the way.

Our first stop was at the Washington County, Va., Historic Society to dig around for information on Henry and the Rosenbaum family.

washington co, VA hist society

I found quite a bit of information on the Rosenbaum family at the Historical Society of Washington County in Abingdon. They had a book in their genealogy material that was a treasure trove of data from a researcher. “The Rosenbaum-Rosenbalm Family of Southwest Virginia” by Clifford R. Canfield, Frankfurt, Germany, 1963. I copied the pages that were pertinent to the direct family and some excerts and will put those in a photo gallery to share. Please note this is probably copyrighted material, so if using this material, give proper credit to the author. These might be a little out of order…

So that gave you Mary’s family information, as well as their migration pattern, etc.. I wonder if the Rosenbaums knew the Clinards and Hinkles in Pennsylvania? This would be interesting to research! Here are copies of the original will of Alexander Rosenbaum and his estate settlement that was at the archives. The transcriptions are in the gallery above in the Rosenbaum book. Alexander’s death was in 1806 and his daughter Mary Clynard is mentioned in the will so we know she is still living then.

Alexander Rosenbaum will, 1806, Washington Co, VA, pg 12

Alexander Rosenbaum Estate Inventory, Va, 1806

Then I dropped into the Washington County Courthouse and got a copy of Henry Clinard/Clynard’s military discharge from 1810.

Washington Co, VA courthouse

We’re not exactly sure why Henry was discharged from Fort Powhatan for being “improperly enlisted” – he was around 40 then so it couldn’t have been age related. Something else to research… I can’t find much on Fort Powhatan or it’s military history.

It reads:

“Fort Powhatan 13th January 1810

It having been represented to the honorable the Secretary of War that Henry Clynard a private soldier in the late Capt. Alexander S. Walkers Company the Rifle Regiment had been improperly enlisted has ordered that he be discharged the service of the United States in conformity thereto the said Henry Clynard is hereby discharged from said service and declared free to return to his family in Washington County Virginia.”

It was recorded in the Washington County, Va courthouse records in the 1806-1812 Will Book 3, page 85.

Henry Clinard:Clynard, 1810 discharge of service

After 1810, it appears they drop off the map for a while in the research I’ve seen or done. Perhaps she died and is buried there with her Rosenbaum family and Henry decided to go to Tennessee to join his brother Lawrence.

Just a short drive past Shepherd’s Joy is the old White’s Mill which still produces today. I wish it had been open when we visited but it wasn’t. They have an online store and more information at:

carol at whites mill, Abin, VA

cats at White's Mill, Abing, VA

 tortie cat at Whites Mill, Ab, VA

From there,  we took a quick detour off the highway at the Wythe County Archives to see if we could find anything on the Clinards. They would have passed through on their way from North Carolina to Abingdon.

Wythe Co, Va Historic Society

He is listed in the 1800 Wythe County, VA Personal Property Tax List A,   1800 Clynard, Henry. A Wythe Co, Va court record showing him serving jury duty in June 13, 1801 and it notes: “Henry Clinard, 50 miles to court and the same returning and is allowed three days attendance”. Damascus, Virginia to Wytheville, Virginia is about 55 miles and in his 1806 military discharge papers it notes he is living in Washington County, Va in 1810.

Wythe Co, VA court book 1790-1810

Henry Clinard, VA, 1801, jury

So, after that we have a blank on facts for Henry and Mary Clinard. We’ll have to make a leap in assumptions to the next generation and go from there until a family Bible or scrap of paper comes to light with a family tree written on it that can confirm our guesses. Our next data for who we think are the children of Henry and Mary are marriage and census records that show children that were probably theirs. If Henry came on to Tennessee after 1810, perhaps he stayed with Lawrence in Robertson County for a while.

From my data, I think that Alexander Clinard, born 1792 in Virginia, a Philip Clinard born 27 Feb, 1804? in Virginia, a Sarah and a Jane (don’t know their birth dates) are their children. If this is true, then it’s interesting that they all married in 1825, three of them just days apart.


Alexander Clinard marries Margaret (or Martha Ann?) Brumley 19 Nov, 1825, Williamson County, TN

Philip Clinard marries Nancy Brumley on 15 June 1825 by William Lylte, J.P. in Davidson County, TN

Sarah Clinard marries Alexander James on 16 June, 1825 by William Faulkner

Jane Clinard marries Uriah Marcum on 18 June 1825 by William Lylte, J.P.

On I found the marriage record of Philip, Sarah and Jane recorded together on the same page:

Philip Clinard, Nancy Brumley mar cer

That’s enough for now.. My Family Tree Maker program with my Clinard family tree is locked up, so I have to get that resolved to see what I have saved from here on!

Categories: Family History: CLINARD, NC to Robertson Co, Tenn, Travel: THE SOUTH, Travel: VIRGINIA | Tags: , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

A Week in Scotland, July 2008

I figured while I was on the Scottish theme from my previous post of my Scottish ancestor, James Frank Bowie, I might as well go ahead and post my photos from our trip to Scotland. We flew from Nashville into Edinburgh, Scotland in July of 2008 and bravely rented a car to drive through the countryside.

We started off with our first night in the little seaside town of Crail, where a local festival was going on. I loved the neatly-kept cobblestoned towns and colorful flowers everywhere. We stayed at a the Selcraig House B & B, which was filled with antiques.

Our next stop was St. Andrews, so Wally could check out their famous Old Course and dream… I enjoyed picking up sea glass at the little harbor beach area for my collection and with the chilly weather, found some wonderful Scottish wool sweaters and a crystal decanter in some of the St. Andrews charity (thrift) shops.

We then headed north to our evening destination, Nairn, and the Invernairne Guest House on Moray Firth. It was fabulous!!! Our suite looked out over the firth and we watched dolphins frolic from the yard. Their dining area also looks over the water and they have the coolest pub on the other end. The little town of Nairn has some nice boutiques and shops and my favorite was a local artisan/crafts shop where I got my mother some handmade wool yarns for knitting.

From Nairn we visited Castle Cawdor, which has the most heavenly gardens and maze. The castle tour was interesting as well, as the family still lives in part of it. Of course the antiques were amazing as well!

We couldn’t not visit Loch Ness and even with dreary weather it was neat to see the home of “Nessie” and the ancient Castle Urquhart that sits right above the water.

After leaving Nairn, we drove through Elgin where I had Wally stop off at their local Moray County history and genealogy archives to do some research (see James Frank Bowie Family History post). We were scheduled to meet up with Wally’s Ogles cousins in Morpeth for their Ogles family reunion, so it was time to head south.

From Elgin, we drove down through the mountains and forests through Grantown-on-Spey, which is a beautiful town with some interesting shops worth visiting. We stopped off for a late lunch in Perth, which is a picturesque town with a river running through it. They had a wonderful antique store that Wally let me browse through for a while, then it was back on the road.

Our time was over too quickly, and Scotland is definitely on our list of places to return to again. I just hope it’s a bit warmer next time!

Here’s our snapshots, mostly in corresponding order of our trip:

Categories: Family History: BOWIE, Travel: SCOTLAND | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

James Frank Bowie (1851-1930), Scottish immigrant

Our Scottish Heritage Mystery

My great-great-grandfather, James Frank Bowie, born Aug. 12, 1851 in Scotland, immigrated to the United States around 1875-1880. We know this through census information as well as his naturalization approval information recorded in Robertson County, Tenn, but they don’t mention where in Scotland.  His Scottish family lineage is a mystery that my great-uncle, James Boyd Bowie, has been trying to solve for decades. He traveled to Scotland years ago, without success, and I did the same a few years ago.

James Frank Bowie, born Aug. 12, 1851 in Scotland, note the distinctive long face

Our main problem is that we don’t know his parent’s names, and James Bowie is such a common name in Scotland. His death certificate has his parent’s names listed as “unknown”. I’ve tracked down every Scottish James Bowie born in 1851 in census records on with no concrete evidence of any of them being ours. He appears to possibly have been born after the census-taking date, so he might not have appeared in 1851 Scottish census.

My mother, Carol Bowie, has always been interested in family history and she took notes years ago when my grandfather, Robin Earl Bowie was alive of his family memories. According to my mother’s notes,  supposedly James Bowie came to the U.S. from Edinburgh, working aboard a grain ship that first went to China, then came to the U.S. landing at New York. The note says he was born in the Highlands and that he was married and her name was Jessie. Supposedly they were divorced – which this would have been between 1869-1879.

Another note that someone in the family had written down has that he was born in “Murray” Scotland and moved to Huntly, Scotland. After researching and eventually traveling to Scotland, I discerned that Murray was probably actually “Moray” County, and the old map in 1809 shows Murray Firth, later called Moray Firth. This note also has written that “Bro. named Willie”, Sister named Maggie” so we have sibling nicknames, but once again, very common names.

If anyone is knowledgeable about police history in Scotland, perhaps he had to fill out his parent’s names or county of birth on a police application? Also at what age could he have applied to verify he was in fact a policeman. Family history says that James Frank Bowie was a policeman in Scotland and perhaps he was a policeman in Huntly or that area. My grandfather, Robin Earl Bowie inherited from his grandfather, James Frank Bowie, a silver pocket watch inscribed “James Walker, Dufftown”, a small British Bulldog police issue pistol and a Seth Thomas mantle clock. (more closeups later in blog)

Mantle clock, Bulldog pistol and pocket watch passed down from James Frank Bowie.

These items were passed to my father, Robin Paul Bowie and I photographed them several years ago before going to Scotland. A cousin, Lucian Bowie, had inherited the police whistle that went along with the pocket watch and pistol, but it has been lost over the years, so we don’t know if it had anything engraved on it. Sadly, during a robbery, the pocket watch and Bulldog pistol were stolen from our family. (I have an update on the pocket watch later in the blog!)

As the clock is a Seth Thomas and American made, he probably bought that at some once he was in the U.S. (see photos deeper in blog on police clues).

The first real proof of James Frank Bowie in the U.S. is his marriage to Susan Elizabeth Starks in Todd Co., Kentucky in November 1882. We have found no ship immigration proof and have not been able to verify him in the 1880 census (there is a married James Bowie in Buffalo, NY in the 1880 census but I think this is the Banffshire James Bowie).

My grandfather, Robin Earl Bowie, was born in 1912 and had some memories of his grandfather, James Frank Bowie, who died in 1930 when Robin was 18. Grandfather Bowie (Robin Earl) had inherited a small photo album that was filled with pictures of Scottish relatives – none of who were identified. I remember him showing it to me as a child and being fascinated by their fancy clothing and hair styles

There were also two photos from Buffalo, New York, USA, and after having looked at them several times in doing this blog, I’m beginning to wonder if they might be his brother and sister, Maggie and Willie. They both have long faces and the man has a receding hairline similar to our James. What do you think? The photographer information when they were taken ranges from 1862-1881 and James supposedly arrived around 1875 in the U.S. in New York.

The youngest head shot we have of James Frank Bowie

Is this Willie Bowie? Photo by B.F. Powelson, in business in Buffalo from 1862-1881
Could this be Maggie Bowie, his sister? Photo was taken by H. McMichael, 1871-1881 in Buffalo, New York. Several have suggested she is dressed in “widow’s weeds”

Town names from the photographers in the Scottish album include Lossiemouth, Paisley, Huntly, Brora, Elgin, Keith, Aberdeen, Edinburgh and others. I have photographed each one individually, front and back which will appear in a photo gallery later in this blog, but recently sorted the photos into groups by town and photographer identification – all have been sized that they can be printed easily.

Note the long face structure in several of them.  I would love feedback on perhaps what their dress, jewelry, hair styles, etc. says about them and their status in society for the 1850s-1870s. This might help me narrow down family groups if I can distinguish this group as being merchants, wealthy, working class, etc., when cross referencing with census professions for the men of that time. Also, any researchers that might have information on associated families in the 1870s that married Bowies – these might have been a wife or mother’s family photos.

Photographer, Johnston from Forres, Morayshire

Photos from Huntly, Scotland. Supposedly our James moved to Huntly

Huntly women closeup

Corresponding backs to the Huntly photos

Elgin, photos by R. Stewart and Young

Corresponding backs of Elgin photos

Lossiemouth sisters? by J. Watts (note the long faces)

Paisley photos

Keith man and woman

Aberdeen woman

Aberdeen woman and brothers?

J. Smith photo, Rhynie

Brora, George Adams photographer

Edinburgh, Howie June sisters?

Edinburgh, Bashford photographer

Edinburgh photos

This Archibald Burns carte de viste  of the Sir Walter Scott Memorial was included in the album.

1808 Scotland Map – note Murray Firth later becomes Moray Firth up in northeast corner

Scottish Census Research:

From the census research I’ve done over the years I’ve ruled out some of the James Bowie’s born around 1851 as not being mine as they were still in Scotland after he supposedly immigrated in 1875. They were:
James Bowie:
Dreghorn, Ayrshire
Abby, Renfrew, Renfrewshire
Linlithgow, West Lothian

James Bowie, born February 1851 of Banffshire comes to US, marries Helen, lives in Illinois and then moves to Rhode island where he dies, so he’s not mine either.

A “maybe” I had bookmarked from research over the years is from the 1861 census, Moray County,

Head of household, William Bowie (Mason), 52, wife Margaret, children Betsy, Helen, James (10 – which would have him born in 1851), Jean, and Robert

In 1871 census there is a James Bowie, 20 and William Bowie, 24 (matches up to above record) working in Glasgow St George Lanarkshire as masons.

I’m not sure if I followed that group further than that or if I lost track of them.. ***I think I have now ruled him out as well


Here are the items that descended through our family from James Frank Bowie:

If anyone can help us date/identify the pistol please let me know – my regular email is!

I can happily report as of March 2013, that we have recovered our pocket watch! Due to this blog and my photos of the pocket watch, I was contacted by someone that had purchased the watch from someone else (that probably got it from whoever stole it, etc.) and he was researching the watch’s history when he came across this blog.

He emailed me with photos of the watch and due to the obscure watchmaker, hallmarks and the paper lion label still in it, we both realized it was our watch. He continued his research on the watch history for us, and discovered through the hallmarks and inscriptions that it was made around 1815 by an obscure watchmaker James Walker that worked in Dufftown and Aberdeenshire, Scotland in the early 1800s. The silver case was made by a silversmith John Keene, who worked from the late 18th to early 19th century in Dublin, Ireland.

So the watch could have been James Bowie’s fathers or grandfathers that was passed down to him – or maybe even given to him as a present before he left Scotland to voyage to a new life in America. I’m just thrilled we’ll have it back as part of our family heritage to hopefully pass down to younger generations of Bowies. Now if someone runs across the British Bulldog pistol, let me know!

Bowie watch face and inner paper liner

The original paper label – can anyone identify the jeweler?

Dufftown (town name), James Walker (watch maker) engraved on the inside of the watch

Watch outer case hallmarks

pocket watch inner case hallmarks

Moray County Archives Research

As the photos seemed to start up in the Highlands and moved down to the bigger cities, I chose to research up in Moray with my limited time. As I didn’t have but an hour or so to research at the Moray Archives in Scotland (they were closing), I left all the information I had and copies of my photos. A while later the historian emailed me with their findings. I’ll include them here for everyone along with the Archives information:

Contact     The Local Heritage Officer
Address     East End School, Institution Road, Elgin, Moray
Postcode     IV301RP
Telephone     01343 569011

Books – over 8000 titles.
Newspapers – back files of all local newspapers from 1827 to date.
Maps and Estate plans.
Photographs – over 20,000 images from 1860 to the present day.
Architects’ Plans – including the Doig Collection of distillery plans and Wittet collection of local buildings designed between 1810 and 1960.
Archives – from medieval to modern times.
Genealogical records.

(***Here’s the historian’s info)

Bowie family‏
Graeme Wilson (
Fri 10/03/08 5:20 AM
Dear Mrs Dudiak

My sincere apologies for the delay in answering your email about your Bowie
ancestors. My only excuse is that during the holiday season we have been
inundated with visitors and email enquiries and, with a staff of two, we
have been unable to stem the build-up of an enormous backlog of enquiries.

We have been unable to find any reference to the birth of James Frank Bowie
in the surviving baptism registers.  Unfortunately he was born after the
1851 census was drawn up and, since we don’t know where he was living in
1861, we are unable to trace him. We also checked the birth notices in the
local newspapers without success.  Since he moved to Huntly, it may be
worthwhile contacting the Aberdeen & North East Scotland Family History
Society ( as Huntly falls within their area of expertise.

The Christian names William and Margaret are both very common in this area
and we have found no Bowies with that name who have a brother James Frank.
The “Jessie” he was apparently married to may also have been known as
“Janet” as the two names are interchangeable.  Unfortunately we have not
found any reference to a marriage.

We haven’t been able to reproduce the connection with the Clan Grant
although it seems probable that there were Bowies and Grants in Moray who
were related (Grant is the commonest surname in this area).

Thank you for the photographs which we will keep on file.

I am sorry we have been unable to help you further at this stage.  However
new records are continually be added to the Libindx database
( and hopefully some relevant information will
come to light in the future.

All the best for your future research.

Graeme Wilson


My mother’s notes show that he got a job on a farm in Sharon Grove, Kentucky (Todd County), owned by J.L. and Nancy Morgan Starks. He married their daughter, Susan Elizabeth “Lizzie” Starks in 1882, and “after they married they left Sharon Grove, Ky and moved to Price’s Mill, Kentucky (Simpson Co) where most of their children were born.”

James and Lizzie Bowie, Lizzie’s sister, Colorado “Rada” and her husband ? Murphey

James Bowie, Etta, Ethel, Fred, Rosa Dell, Elizabeth Bowie and Belle Starks

They later moved to Robertson County, Tennessee, to Springfield, where they lived for many years. In 1892, James Bowie applied for his Naturalization papers through the Robertson County, Tenn., courts.

James Frank Bowie application for Naturalization

Naturalization page 1 of 2 court records (at bottom, cont. on 2nd page at top)

page 2 of Naturalization record

James Bowie was a road builder and I featured several old photos I had on a previous blog: Robertson County Road Builders. He and Lizzie worked for the Jewish Temple Cemetery in Nashville between about 1924 to 1930.  After he died in 1930, his son Fred and his wife Rosa Dell took over.  Fred died quickly after that and Rosa Dell continued on for some time.

Here are their family group sheets:

James Frank Bowie’s wife and children

Susan Elizabeth Starks parents and siblings

So if you are a long-lost relative that has information to help us find living “cousins” and those past, please email me at


I photographed the backs and fronts of each photo and have them photo identified to match up. The towns that there were taken range from Edinburgh up through the Highlands, where supposedly our James was born. (**see photographer history footnote at end)

**Scottish photographer history I found:


William T Bashford   was miniature painter and photographer.  Between 1878 (or probably a few years earlier)  and 1930, he was based at several addresses in Portobello – a popular seaside resort in the 1890s, situated about five miles from Edinburgh.

His studio appears to have been well located for visitors.  His cartes de visite from 1882 to 1893, when he was based at 163 High Street, Portobello, advertised:

“WT Bashford, Argyle House, Portobello, NB. (North Britain)

Precisely at the Tramway Terminus”.


“Millar”, Paisley

James Millar Mackay

EPS Member

J M Mackay appeared in the Edinburgh trade directories as  a photographer from 1872 to 1874, and then became an artist.

However, the subjects of his lectures to EPS suggest that his photographic business began several years before 1872.


Studios at 7 Leith Street

Thomas Begbie’s photographic studio was at  7 Leith Street.  He was based at this address from 1874 until 1881

After Thomas Begbie left, a succession of other photographers were based at this address:


Nimmo & Son

Peter Nimmo  was photographer, working under his own name from 1863 and forming a company with his son from 1869 onwards.  They advertised:

“All Works of Photography Executed in the Highest Style of the Art”

Peter Nimmo contributed 4 photographs to 1876 EPS Exhibition.

He died on 9 January 1900, aged 82.

Nimmo Studios

Nimmo,  Peter
44 South Bridge 1863-68

Nimmo,  Peter, & Son
39 South Bridge 1869-96

Nimmo,  Peter, & Son
44 South Bridge 1869-96

****OUR NIMMO & SONS PHOTO IS CA 1872 (compared to photos on site)


Here’s some Wikipedi overview information on the County of Moray:

Moray (Moireibh in Gaelic) is one of the registration counties of Scotland, bordering Nairnshire to the west, Inverness-shire to the south, and Banffshire to the east. It was formerly in use as a local government county until 1975, when Elgin was the county town.

Prior to 1889 there were two large detached portions of Moray situated locally in Inverness-shire, and a corresponding part of Inverness-shire situated locally in Moray. With the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889 these parts were merged into the areas in which they locally lay. The county was officially called Elginshire, or informally ‘Morayshire’ (see Scotlandshire), sharing the name of the Elginshire parliamentary constituency, so named since 1708.

In 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, most of the county was combined with Aberlour, Buckie, Cullen, Dufftown, Findochty, Keith and Portknockie areas of the county of Banffshire to form the Moray district of the Grampian region. Grantown-on-Spey and Cromdale areas were combined with Kingussie and Badenoch areas of the county of Inverness-shire to form the Badenoch and Strathspey district of the Highland region.

The registration county, for property, is ‘County of Moray’, and a slightly smaller area, also based on the former county, is a lieutenancy area named ‘Moray’. Administrative Morayshire 1889-1975

Towns and villages of the county

* Burghead
* Charlestown of Aberlour
* Craigellachie
* Elgin
* Findochty
* Glenlivet
* Grantown-on-Spey
* Lossiemouth
* Maggieknockater
* Portknockie
* Rothes
* Dufftown
* Hopeman
* Forres
* Buckie
* Keith
* Kinloss
* Kellas
* Alves
* Fochabers
* Mosstodloch
* Lhanbryde

Categories: Family History: BOWIE | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Robertson County Road Builders

My Robertson County “Road Builders”

An album of photos found in my grandparent’s attic reflect a piece of our history…

My Great-Great Grandfather, James Frank Bowie and his road crew building Hwy 49 to Springfield, TN in the early 1900s

My interest in my family history has led me back in time, through the archives of our country’s history. Thanks to Robertson County’s good collection of county records, and research from my Clinard cousins into our early history in Pennsylvania and North Carolina, I can trace the Clinard branch of my family back NINE generations to the early 1700s, where they lived in Pennsylvania.

The Winters, Heads, Parkers, Justices, Holmes, Bradleys and many more of my ancestors were also here in the United States before 1800, and they were courageous, hardy pioneers that forged paths and then built roads through the wilderness in search of good farm land and freedom.

Land owners during the 1700 and 1800s were required to build and maintain common roads for their communities, and county court records are a great way to find your ancestors and who their neighbors were. Rick Russell and David Clinard dug up our North Carolina Clinard records and here is one example of a court record in Rowan County, North Carolina.

“November 9, 1787.  Ordered that the following jury, viz: Frederick Miller, John Zanker, Jacob Mock, Devolt Mock, Henry Ribble, Jacob Clinehard, Henry Betnee, Philip Craver, Philip Fox, Adam Harmon, John Foc, and Edward Burk to layoff and continue the road to the nearest and best way from the Dan River Road leading by David Morrow’s, from the County to Long Ferry Road with John Zerker overseer of said road.”

In the late 1700s my ancestors were also faced with heavy taxation and government control, and in 1776 the American Revolution broke out in response to the oppressive yoke of government. As the Revolution was raging, Americans were streaming west. My people came to the “Cumberland” or Middle Tennessee area and settled in Robertson County, but in those early days it was still part of North Carolina. It must have been back-breaking work clearing the forested land to build communities from the wilderness. Just think of removing those stumps after they cut down trees!

And don’t you bet those pioneers that headed out west wish some roads and bridges had been there??? My mother was just telling me the other day about a branch of her cousins that headed to Texas, and after crossing the Mississippi River and several getting swept away, said they would never cross that river again!

I like to dig around at the Robertson County Archives for family history and one of the earliest records I found was a county road order for my ancestor. In 1809, my ggggg-grandfather, Lawrence Clinard was named in a court order as overseer of his section of the “Ironworks Road from the Nashville Road to Brown’s Fork”, along with neighbors Peter Frey, Anthony Hinkle, Henry Frey, Matthew Morris, Wm. Houston and Wm. Crockett.

The Nashville Road is now Old Hwy 431. ***See the last entry on the page for the entry.

Robertson County, Tenn., 1809 county court records,
Lawrence Clinard road overseer last entry.

If a land owner was unable to work on the road maintenance or did not want to, they could hire a surrogate in their place and this is noted in court records as well. Everyone did their part – not the government doing it for them!

My Great-Great Grandfather, James Frank Bowie (born Aug. 12, 1851 and pictured at top), came to America from Scotland around 1880. He lived in Sharon Grove, Ky., for a while, marrying Susan Elizabeth Starks and in the early 1800s moved south to Robertson County, Tennessee. His occupation was building roads, as well as his son, my great grandfather, John “Jack” Willie Bowie.

When I was a teenager I discovered an album of old photos in my grandparent’s attic. Grandmother Bowie was Thelma Head Bowie who married Robin Earl Bowie, son of Jack. She told me the photos were of my Great-Great-Grandfather James Frank Bowie and his road crews. In some of the photos there are photos of teenagers and those would be his children. We don’t know the identity of any of the other crew members, so anyone that can identify them please let me know!

From the landmarks in the photos, they were working on Hwy 49 that runs into Springfield. The Peoples Tucker School is in the background of this next photo. It burned in 1926, so these photos had to have been before then.

James Frank Bowie (standing in front) and his road crew in front of the Peoples Tucker School.

I googled the school to find out more and on this site:, found the following:

“James A. Peoples, who with his brothers Grier and Hal had worked at Battle Ground Academy, founded Peoples-Tucker along with Everett B. Tucker in 1908. The founders were both alumni of Vanderbilt, and encouraged athletic participation along with academics. Peoples acted as principal for the school’’s entire existence; Tucker left in 1910 for another position. In 1925, Peoples sold the school to the town of Springfield, and the school became Springfield High School. The original buildings burned in 1936.”

In the next photo there are two boys on the mules – The older teenaged boy waving is John Willie Bowie (born in 1886 and my great grandfather) and the younger one Fred Bowie (born in 1889), James Frank’s sons. Or the younger boy could have been his son, Frank H. Bowie who was born in 1896 and died in 1900 of a head injury. The girls would have been his daughters, Etta and Ethel.

James Frank Bowie road crew, boys on mules

In this next photo it looks like one of the Springfield Tobacco Warehouses in the background? Can you imagine using those wishbone-looking drags to move and level that dirt – or maybe they put dirt or rocks in them?

James Frank Bowie road crew in town?

Here’s a few family photos of James Frank Bowie and family:

James Frank Bowie

James Frank Bowie with his wife, Lizzie Starks and her sister, Rada Starks and her husband

Elizabeth, John, Etta, Fred and Ethel Bowie (young)

James Frank’s son, “Jack” (John Willie) worked with his father on the road crews as he got older, and as an adult, had his own crews. This picture was from the 1940s – no more mules!

Jack Bowie and crew in the 1940s

We found this campaign card in the stairwell of the old Clinard house when we wearing tearing it down. He married Jessie Lee Clinard. From family history, he worked on roads all over the southeast during the 1940s.

Jack Bowie election card

In 2009 and 2010 I went to Morningside Assisted Living in Springfield to interview Ralph Felts, 93, and his wife, Katherine Clinard Felts about family history. Come to find out, Ralph had worked for my Great-Grandfather, Jack Bowie when he was a young man. He shared his memories with me:

“I knew Jack Bowie. I worked for Jack a lot in the early days. He was supervisor for Interstate Construction. I remember Jessie Bowie (Clinard) very well. She and Lucian favored. In 1931-32, the year I graduated from Coopertown High School, I took a pair of mules and pulled dirt out along the roads for $6 a day. My mule team was Kit and Lou – they were seven or eight years old. One died of colic. A two or three-year-old mule would cost $200-$300 back then.

Jack Bowie was very, very precise in what he did, and at the same time he was the nicest person you would ever know. When he told you what we had to do he meant for you to do it. He wasn’t prone to any foul language. A fella named Payne that was superintendant of the company cussed every breath. The road we built was about six miles of 49 from Pleasant View to the other side of Coopertown. I worked pulling up dirt against the forms.

We were surfacing the roads then adding about three-inch rocks to the dirt. Then we’d run a roller over it and then add another two inches down and roll it again, then it would have a five-inch base. They would let it get run over good. There was a grater that went over it twice a week from Springfield to Ashland City that was on a tractor.

We got that completed and moved to East Tennessee. We built the first streets in Norris City. Clinton was where we were hanging out in. I was driving a dump truck. Two of us were sealing the Knoxville to Clinton road that was shot with asphalt, backing in with chirt to add. Jack was the supervisor of that job, and was there on some of it. He was also working on another road. Then I worked for Payne. They brought chirt in on the railroad and unloaded it with a crane. Two crane operators were out and Payne told me to operate the crane. It was Up and Down. I made 60 cents and hour when I worked on the crane and when I finished there I made $1.25. I made more money then I had every made. I started with them right out of high school and worked through to Christmas. I left and never went back. That wasn’t what I wanted to keep doing.”


Well, that’s all for now. Bet you’ll appreciate those roads more now that you know all the hard work that went into building them!

Categories: Family History & Genealogy, Family History: BOWIE, Family History: CLINARD, NC to Robertson Co, Tenn | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Coopertown, TN group visits Mammoth Cave, circa 1908

I was digging around this afternoon and discovered a box in my bonus room from my parent’s stuff. It was a box of old photos from my grandmother, Thelma Head Bowie, and I had seen a few of them, but some I had NEVER seen. My mom told me that the last year before Grandmother had died she had given them this box that had some of her favorite photos. It contained several albums of when she attended Coopertown School in the 1930s, along with her reunion books and quite a few Head family photos. It also had correspondence about her Holmes and Bradley family trees when they were working on the “Head Holmes” family book.

This was my favorite find of the batch so I am just going to post it now. On the back was written by my grandmother “Jesse and Lula Head & a group”. They married Feb. 28, 1910, so I would think this would have been taken a year or two before that as they moved to Arkansas shortly after they married. I’m still trying to figure out which ones they are!

Check out their bandanas and cave crawling socks and shoes and the men’s hats…

Maybe some of you Coopertown folks can identify your relatives? Let me know!

Circa 1908-1909 Coopertown Group visiting Mammoth Cave

Categories: Family History: HEAD, Coopertown, Tennessee | Tags: , | 1 Comment

Chapter 4: Kleinert to Clinard, 1700s in Pennsylvania

Who are These Clinards?

The Clinard name has evolved over time. Early records of the Pennsylvania settlers show the names spelled Cliner, Kline, Klein, Kynart, Kleinert, Clinart, Clynard, then in the 1790 Federal Census in North Carolina, Clinard. The Germanic translation of klein or kleiner is an adjective –  “little” or “small”. There is no translation for Kleinert/Klynert/Kylnart. Like many names, is seems to have made a phonetic evolution and it is seen in many different forms when researching back through the years. Whoever wrote up the documents spelled the name the way it sounded to them. I would think that the language barrier probably prohibited them from asking how they spelled their name in “Deutsch”. Since we’ve ended up with as modern-day Clinards, that’s what I’ll refer to the family name.

John “Klynart” named on a deed from
Bucks Co., Pennsylvania, 1742
(David Clinard and Rick Russell Research)

The Trail Led to Pennsylvania in the 1700s

Clinard cousins, David V. Clinard and Rick Russell have compiled a great chronological record of facts and deeds on the Clinards from Pennsylvania to North Carolina that you can read in detail at

Our first TENNESSEE Clinard, Lawrence, (my direct ancestor) is first mentioned in baptism records in Pennsylvania, so he will be my reference person. Lawrence’s father’s name was Johann Philip (sometimes Phillip) Klynart/Kleinert/Clinert/Cliner/Clinard (depending on the document) and he was born around 1720, though research has not yet shown if he was born in Pennsylvania or Germany.

We know that he was the father of Lawrence and the other siblings in North Carolina as his will is recorded in 1802 in the Rowan County, NC Wills, Book E, page 214. and reads as follows:

The Will of (Johann) Philip Clinard  North Carolina, Rowan County

In the name of God Amen, I, Philip Clinard of the County of Rowan and State of North Carolina, being very sick and weak in body but of perfect mind and memory, thanks be given to God, calling unto mind the mortality of my body and knowing that it is appointed for all men once to die, do make and ordain this my last will and test; that is to say principally and first of all I give and recommend my soul to God and my body to be buried decently and in a Christian burial – at the discretion of my executor nothing doubting at the general resurrection I shall receive the same again by the mighty power of God.  And as touching such worldly estate wherewith it has pleased God to bless me in this life.

I give devise and dispose of the same in the following manner and form – I give and bequeath to my son Daniel Clinard all my lands, messuages & tenements, by him freely to be possessed and enjoyed, with this exception viz: that it shall not be in his power to sell or convey it until his youngest daughter shall come of age (to wit Phoebe) and in consideration of his having the above mentioned lands and as he shall furnish his mother every year of her lifetime with the following articles viz twenty bushels of good merchantable wheat, twenty bushels of good Indian corn, six bushels of rice, two fat hogs at the right season, each to weigh upward of a hundred weight, half an acre of flax in suitable good ground, one bushel of salt and one good fat beef or five dollars in cash, the third part of the garden, room sufficient for what potatoes and cotton will be sufficient to herself and food sufficient to winter what cattle and sheep she has, likewise and sufficient quantity of firewood brought handy to her room and likewise he shall take what grain will be  sufficient for her to the mill and bring the meal back to her and the said Daniel Clinard shall give his  mother full possession of the room that I now live in her lifetime and reasonable privilege of any other of this house on the said place.

2. I give to my wife all my movable effects, i.e. Negroes, cattle for her lifetime, so as not to sell or make away with anything unlawfully and after her decease to be vendued and sold at public sale by my executors to be distributed in the manner hereinafter mentioned.  Also I give to my son Daniel Clinard one hundred dollars to be raised out of my movable estate after my wife’s decease. Likewise I give and bequeath to my daughter Phoebe Mock my big Deutch Bible. Likewise I give to Lawrence Clinard, my son, five shillings as his full share.  I also give to my grandson Jacob Mock, the son of Philip Mock, twenty five dollars, to his brother John Mock twenty dollars, and to my granddaughter Mary Stanley, the wife of Reuben Stanley the sum of fifteen dollars as their full share of my estate to be raised as above certified. Likewise it is my will and desire that my son Daniel Clinard shall pay unto my son Henry Clinard the sum of fifty dollars out of the land.  Now after my just and lawful debts is paid and the aforementioned distributions are made, the remainder after my wife’s death to be equally divided between my following children viz. Jacob Clinard, Phoebe Mock, Peter Clinard, Catherine Miller, Daniel & Henry Clinard. I likewise constitute make and ordain my son Jacob Clinard and my grandson John Mock the son of Devault Mock and Phoebe Mock his wife (or widow now) my executors of this will and test; and I do hereby disallow and disannul all and every other test, wills, legacies, bequeaths & executors by me in any wise before named, willed & bequeathed; ratifying & conforming this and no other to be my last will & test.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand & seal this 23rd day of March A.D. 1802.

Signed, sealed & declared as                                                                                            His

his last will and test; in presence                                                                      Philip   ‘PK’   Clinard

of Ezekiel Brown                                                                                                                 Mark

Jacob Brummell


With this information, along with deeds and every scrap of information they could dig up, Rick and David followed the trail back to Pennsylvania. I’ll recap some of their factual information to give readers a trail to follow along and then fill in with information I’ve come across to flesh out their facts.

Johann Philip Kleinert’s father: Hans Kleinerd

The first records indicate the family was living in Weisenburg, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, today a suburb of Allentown. Rick and David’s research revealed the father of Johann Phillip Kleinert/Clinard to be Hans Cliner/John Kleinerd through a land warrant:

29th September 1774, Land Patent book  P2  page 126,  Sept 27, 1783,  “Know ye that in consideration of the monies heretofore paid by HANS CLINER to the state proprietaries at the granting of the warrant herein after mentioned……..there is granted by the said commonwealth to the said Peter Klein, a certain tract of land on Maconge Run, in Weisenberg Twp, formerly in the County of Bucks, now Northampton,  which said tract of land was surveyed by virtue of a warrant dated the 13th August 1734 granted to the said HANS CLINER, who by his will devised the said tract of land to his son PHILIP KLEINHART,  who by deed dated the 29th September 1774 conveyed the said tract of land to the said Peter Klein”  (Research Note: Hans Cliner was John Kleinerd)

The earliest record of Hans Cliner in Rick and David’s research  goes back to 1734: Land Survey Warrants: Hans CLINER July 13, 1734 100 acres adjoining Casper WISTER’s land Macungy, Bucks Co., PA

The will of Hans Kleinerd /John Kleinerd

David Clinard, our Georgia Clinard cousin who has been researching the family for years, emailed me this addition, which I had not previously seen. It is the will of  “John Kleinerd” and names his son, Philip and a daughter Anna and wife Jarly. David sent me the copies of the original will document pages but they are so hard to read I’m just going to place the transcription.

This is how he discovered the will in his research: “I discovered the John Kleinerd will through a Family Treemaker CD which had a close name variation listed. I then did some research in the local genealogy library in Macon GA which I’ve been told is one of the very best research archives in the SE USA. I can’t remember if they led me to the will or if they gave me the info to write to the PA archives. Whatever, I got it!”

When reading this translation remember it was written in the 1750s and use phonetics to decipher the weird spellings that had Germanic origins, ie: fris malck Kouer would translate to fresh milk cow…

John Kleinerd’s Last Will & Testament
Philadelphia, PA
Wills, Book I No. 318
1748 – 1752
It is to be Remembered that I John Kleinerd of Maconce in the County of Bucks and in the province of Pennsylvannia yeoman being much indesposed unto bodily health yet thro the mercy of the Lord of sound perfect mind and memory taking into consideration the uncertainty of this life have therefore thought proper to dispose of my worldly estate by this my Last Will & Testament in such manner and form as is hereinafter expressed. To say first of all, I will all and singular my just debts and charges according for my interment be well and duly and fully paid and in as much as I have already according to my station done pretty well for my Son, viz is Philip Kleinerd, I give to him as to my son all my estaed of all that I have under my possession in this world to have and to hold I say it is my Will and Testament that he my son he and his heirs and assigns shall have all my worldly estead for ever after my decease Excepting notwithstanding my and my wife’s priveledge of our residence within my said dwelling house for and during our natural life.   I likewise disposed of and give to my Daughter Anna, fifteen pounds currand and lawfull money of Pennsylvannia and the money to pay after my and my wifes decease and I give to my Daughter one marr the with marr by Coller and to give her the marr after my decease for she and her heirs and assigns forever and Likewise, is my Will and Testament that my Son Philip Kleinerd shall give to me and my wife Jarly and every year so long as we are in this our Natural Life to give us First, Thirty Bushell of frond, Twenty Bushell of Wheat and Ten Bushell of Rye and to livesser us the frond in the beck and in the mill and home again on our Dwelling House and to give us yearly one fed sheep and Seventy Pounds of Beef, the shain mus weed one hundred Pounds and to give us a Milk Cow free in his Foder and I and my Wife will have Liberty to teck every year a fris malck Kouer and of the stock in the Spring and to give us Twenty pounds of butter yearly and to give us Six Pounds of Wooll and to give to us Fourteen Pounds of Field Flax and we will have our free will in the green to teck six apple Trees where we bless and to give to us every year Five Pounds of currand lawfull money of Pennsylvannia and this herein mentioned Good that Kombs to our Natural life if I or her my Wife shall Say then shall the half from the Fried and the half of the Slash and the half of Butter and the half of flax ___ of the Koue and the half of the Money shall fall back again to my Son Philip Kleinerd or to his Heirs and Assigns for ever and that of one Either our Decease and all the Good that Kombs over is in any of us in the possession After any of our Decease shall fall back again to my son or to his heirs and assigns forever I do hereby give grant will and Transfer unto my said Son and his Heirs power and authority to grant and convey the above mentioned estaet and Good Premises after my decease according to the Siner and direction hereof to any person or persons who shall purchase the same and to heirs forever in fee Simple by all & every such lawfull ways and means in the law as to my Son’s Council learned in the laws shall seem fit and necessary also revoke and by Force and virtue hereof adnull and declare void all former and other wills whatsoever by me at any time heretofore made and I declare this only to be my Last Will and Testament.  In witness whereof I have hereunto affixed my hand and seal this second day of December and in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and fifty one.
John Kleinerd {seal}
Signed Sealed Published and declared to be the Last Will Testament  of the above named John Kleinerd in our presence who at his request in his presence as Witnesses hereunto have subscribed our Names.
Geede Grimm, Johannes Carchinburgh, Nicholas Jermany.
Philada 10th April 1752 Then personally appeared Geede Grimm and Johannes Carchinburgh two of the witnesses to the foregoing Will and on oath did declare they saw and heard John Kleinerd the testor therein named sign seal publish & declare is same will for and as his Last Will & Testament  & that at the doing thereof he was of sound mind memory & understanding to the best of their knowledge.
Gordon Wm. Ministed —-

~ ~ ~

The Settlement of Bucks County, Pennsylvania

An extraction from “Histories of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon, In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,” by Alfred Mathews, published in 1884 describes this area as: “Weisenburg Township was formed out of the “Backparts of Macunjy” and part of the Allemangel, and was erected as a township in 1753. Weisenburg was named for the city Weissenburg, a fortress and town in Alsace, from the vicinity in which the majority of the townspeople had come. The first settlements took place in 1734, on and around the highlands in the vicinity of Ziegel Church.”

Weisenberg, PA topo map showing Ziegel Church

Histories of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon, In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,” by Alfred Mathews
Index page

Histories of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon, In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,” by Alfred Mathews
Table of Contents pg

When googling the book to see if I could find more information, I discovered there was actually a digital copy online available to read free at:

For those interested in learning about the Pennsylvania and earlier history, this is a very informative read. The Chapter “Pennsylvania Germans” gives an overview of the people’s settlement, characteristics, religion and education, language translations and much more, which I will highlight at the end of this chapter. For those that would like to learn more about the early families in Lehigh County, visit the Lehigh County Historical Society’s online site at:

Philip Kleinert was a founding member of Ziegel Church

According to the Clinard family baptism records, they must have been members of the Ziegel congregation. Their children’s baptisms range from 1757 until 1769 and are recorded in the Ziegel Church records.

June 12, 1757: Anna Maria Klinert, daughter of Philip Kleinert (1802 will) and Catherine, is baptized in Weissenberg, Lehigh County. Ref: Ziegel Church records.

March 12, 1759: Philip Kleinert, (Jr.), the son of Philip Kleinert and Catharine is baptized at Ziegel Church in Weissenberg Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Ref: Records of Ziegel Church, Pennsylvania Births, Lehigh County, 1734 – 1800 by John Humphrey.

April 6, 1761: Daniel Kleinert, son of Philip Kleinert and Catherine, is baptized in Weissenberg. Ref: Ziegel Church records.

1765: Catherine Klinert, daughter of Philip Klinert, is born in Maxetanien, Pennsylvania. Ref: DAR records.

(**This is our Tennessee Lawrence**): March 15, 1769: Johann Lorentz (Lawrence) Kleinert, son of Philip and Catherine Kleinert is born in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Ref: Rev. Daniel Schumacher’s Baptismal Register 1756 – 1773.

Note that several of the siblings marry Hinkle (probably also siblings) and Mock brothers

The children of Johann Philip Kleinert are:

JACOB (marries Catherine Deck Hinkle?)

PHOEBE (marries Devault/Dewalt/Devolt Mock)

ANNA MARIA (marries Phillip Mock)

DANIEL (marries Mary Hinkle)

PETER (marries Sophie Sossaman)

CATHARINE (marries Frederick Miller)

LAWRENCE (marries Rosina Miller)

HENRY­ (marries Mary Rosenbaum Hinkle)

(**Not sure what happens to Philip Jr that is named in Baptism Records??)


Another Bucks County Klynart deed from Rick and David’s research

Kline’s Mill –  land formerly owned by Johann Philip Kleinert/Clinard

From David and Rick’s research: About the year 1770, Peter Kline bought 260 acres of land from Philip Kleinert in the southern part of Weisenberg township. A miller by trade, Peter Kline erected a mill on the property about 1780. Kline’s Mill is situated on Schaeffer’s Run, in the southern part of the township. (source: “History of Lehigh County, PA” Chapter XLVI Weissenberg Township, page 996.)

I searched online for more information about Kline’s Mill and ran across this website that also references the “History of Lehigh County, PA” book and give an overview on the Peter Klein that bought Johann Philip Kleinert’s land. We don’t know their relationship yet, but there are lots of name similarities and they are living in the same neighborhood, obviously know each other and are founding members of the local church.

In History of Lehigh County, PA by C. R. Roberts, 1914.

At Bethlehem Public Library . Kline Family biographies pp. 679-685

  • p. 679. Philip Wendel Klein, the ancestor of this family, was a native of Germany, and emigrated to America on the ship Phoenix, arriving at Philadelphia on October 12, 1744. He settled in Weisenberg Township, on a farm about a mile northeast of Seipstown. As early as 1746 his name appears in this section, and on Dec. 5, 1753, he secured a warrant for land, which he sold to his son, John Jacob, on Nov. 10, 1761. Philip Wendel Klein was one of the organizers of the Lutheran congregation at Ziegel Church, where his name appears in 1750. His sons were: John Adam, John Jacob, Lorentz, and Peter.
  • pg. 681. Peter Kline, youngest son of Philip Wendel, was born April 27, 1741, and died December 22, 1819. He married, in 1763, Margaret, daughter of Christopher and Margaret Stettler. She was born Dec. 13, 1741, and died Feb. 26, 1815. Peter Kline bought 260 acres of land from Philip Kleinert, in the southern part of Weisenberg township. A miller by trade, he erected a mill on the property about 1780, which he sold, with part of his farm, in 1803, to his son Lorentz. Peter Kline had these children: Margaret, born 1768; Lorentz; Jacob; Jonathan; Henry; Maria, wife of Michael Acker; and Mrs. George Smith. Lorentz Kline was born Nov. 12, 1773, and married Magdalena Knauss. They had no children. He was the owner of Kline’s Mill for many years and died June 15, 1868


Ziegel Church

When searching for more information about Ziegel Church’s “Rev. Daniel Schumacher’s Baptismal Register 1756 – 1773” noted on my Lorentz Kleinert’s birth information I found this site:

“The first settlers in this parish came from the Palatinate, Hesse, Württemberg and other regions of Europe, probably immigrating between the years 1725 and 1740. Immigration to this area must have occurred at various times during these years. The following were among the first settlers: Adam Brausz, Ludwig Reichard, Bernhard Schmidt, Nicolaus Mayor, Peter Haas, Thomas Benfiel, Johannes Schlegel, Jörch Schaefer, Carl Corn, Urban Frieble, John Schaefer, Daniel Knausz, John Merkel, Michael Hotz, Johannes Hartmann, Johannes Hergerether, Heinrich Rück, Egüthius Grimm, Zacharias Heller, Jacob Grimm, Heinrich Grimm, Friedrich Windisch, Adam Weber, Andreas Sassenmanshausen [handwritten annotation: “2nd generation”], Georg Baÿer, Johann Nicolaus Gift, Michael Olt, Michael Brauch, Heinrich Gackenbach, Johannes Gackenbach, Friedrich Baÿer, Melchior Ziegler, Philipp Breinig, Peter Heimbach, Bartholomäus Miller, Georg Adam Leipensperger, Jacob Kuntz, Albrecht Stimmel, David Muszgenug, Johannes Lins, Michael Confert, Heinrich Confert, J. Adam Gift, Jost Heinrich Sassenmanshausen, Philipp Kleinert, Georg Schumacher, Valentin Gramlich, Melchior Seib, Johannes Vogel, Heinrich Miller, Johann Anton Walther, Jacob Kümmel, Johannes Derr, Franz Stimmel, Marte Kreutler, Johannes Hermann, Conrath Neff, Johannes Hieder, Heinrich Haas, Adam Schmidt, Johannes Volk, Jost Kop, Johannes Gebel, Friedrich Hirsch, Peter Trexler, Carl Gackenbach, Jacob Schumacher, Philipp Wendel Klein, Bernhard Schmidt, Michael Bauermann, Melchior Kloss, Johannes Bär *, and others.

The first immigrants moved through the rich valley that is now called “Macungie,” because they found no water there. They settled on the higher ground from which Weisenberg Township was later formed. That region [Macungie] was not settled until later years. Because these earliest immigrants neither brought along any preachers from Europe, nor could they get any here in those early days, they held worship services in their own houses for a long time. From time to time, they were also visited by preachers who lived far away. These visiting preachers would administer Holy Communion and baptize the children. In the years 1750, Adam Brausz, Peter Haas, Jacob Grim, Heinrich Grimm and others met to organize and thus founded this parish. They chose a suitable piece of land at a central location between the rather widely scattered inhabitants and enthusiastically got to work on building a church. On July 29th of that same year of 1750, the church they had built was dedicated to the service of God, according to both Lutheran and Reformed customs, for the perpetual use of both confessions. Thus it became an evangelical Lutheran and evangelical Reformed union church. At the dedication of the church, the Rev. Philipp Jacob Michael preached for the Reformed side, and the Rev. Jacob Friedrich Schertlin preached for the Lutheran side. Both preachers were then also accepted as pastors. — On March 29th, 1753, three years later (after the church was built), Adam Brausz took out a warrant on the piece of land on which they had built, which included 41 acres and 63 rods. On April 4th, 1771, Adam Brausz conveyed this piece of land to Peter Haas, Jacob Grimm, and Heinrich Grimm for the use of the Ziegels parish and released it on April 12th of the same year. — At the same time the church was built, a schoolhouse was built for the instruction of the youth. When this schoolhouse burned down in later years, a new, even larger schoolhouse was built from stone. — So the congregation held its public worship here for 45 years, while the number of members increased considerably. Despite all adversity, these old fathers held fast to their church and doctrine and remained true to their German customs. Even the Revolutionary War, in which many participated, and from which some never returned, could not destroy this.x In the times when the Indians of this region were hostile, several families usually stuck together, thus living in a more neighborly fashion, so they could help one another more readily. [annotation added later:] x The moral decay began long before this time.

“History of Lehigh County, PA” Chapter XLVI Weissenberg Township, pages 976-977) offers glimpses into what David and Rick believe to be our ancestors and other affiliated families through their church records.

“Ziegel Church ~ Many of the emigrants settled on the slopes and dales of the ridge on which the church stands, and built their log cabins near springs and creeks. Hence, early in the beginning of the 18th century the origin of the Ziegel congregation was caused, making it one of the oldest congregations in the county. The organization of the congregation was effected in the year 1745. Its property was bought a few years later, and the building of the church occurred still later. In the meantime services were held in the houses of the members where sermons were read by the schoolmaster, and occasionally by a minister from a distance ……..Among the families that organized the congregation were: Adam Braus, Ludwig Reichard, Bernhard Schmidt, Nicolaus Mayer, Peter Haus, Georg Schaefer, Karl Koon, Urban Friebel, Johann Merkel, Daniel Knauss, Michael Shatz, Johannes Hergerehter, Egidius Grimm, Zacharias Heller, Friedrich Windisch, Adam Weber, George Boyer, Johann Nicol Gift, Georg Wendel Zimmerman, Michael Old, Heinrich Gagenbach, Melchior Ziegler, PHILIPP KLEINERT, Peter Heimbach, Bartholomaus Miller, Georg Adam Liebensperger, Jacob Kuntz, Albrecht Stimmel, David Muszgenug, Michael Confert, Andreas Sassamanshausen, Georg Schumacher, Melchior Sieb, Heinrich Miller, Johannes Vogel, Jacob Kimmel, Johannes Hermann, Conrath Neff, Johannes Heider, Adam Schmidt, Philipp Wendell Klein, Johannes Bar, Yost Schaeffer, Philipp Fenstermacher, Friederich Hirsch, Jacob Acker, Georg Falk, Daniel Stettler, Jacob Weitknecht, Johannes Doll. (source: “History of Lehigh County, PA” Chapter XLVI Weissenberg Township, pages 976-977). in 1751 in Maconce (Macungie) area of Pennsylvania.

Ziegels Union Church,

I looked up the Ziegel Union Church online to see what more I could find and their website:  shows they are celebrating their 250-year history. I found their history under “About” and it gives a good condensed version of the new settlers to America.

“Nestled in the gently rolling hills of Weisenberg Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, Ziegels Union Church has been ministering to the community for over 250 years. The first settlers, mostly Germans fleeing the Palatine area, began settlements in the region in 1743. Until they could establish houses of worship, they often met in private homes.

In 1750, our congregations erected the first church, a log building, and dedicated it on the 29th of July that same year. From the start, Ziegels was established as a Union Church, meaning it was home to two congregations who shared the care and expenses of the church. Originally established by the Evangelical Lutheran and German Reformed traditions, the church today is home to their descendants, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the United Church of Christ (UCC). The name Ziegels derives from the German word ziegel or tile as the first log church had a tile roof, typical of many structures at that time in Germany. In addition to the church, the congregations made provisions for a schoolhouse and a “spacious burying ground.”

By 1795, the congregations decided to build a new church as they had outgrown the log church. Members decided to relocate the church, but only after a “throwing of hats,” where members tossed their hat as a vote to one of two possible locations. The stone church had a wine glass pulpit with an altar shaped like the Ark of the Covenant before it. For “eight hundred and fifty dollars in Gold and Silver Money,” the church commissioned the son of the Lutheran minister to build its first organ in 1810. The stone church was replaced in 1864 by a large brick church with a towering white steeple. This steeple attracted a “shaft of electric fluid” in 1887 and burnt to the ground. Another brick church was erected on the same location and like its predecessor, it too burned after its steeple was struck by lightening.

Within the remains of the fourth church, the present church was constructed in 1908. The original building had gallery seating and the rear gallery was home to the organ. An “eye of God,” painted above the arch at the altar, surveyed the worshippers. The addition and renovations of 1956 changed the sanctuary to its present appearance. The congregations added an additional wing in 1990 to provide additional Sunday School classrooms and office space.

The year 2000 marked the 250th anniversary of our first church building. The congregations celebrated our joint religious heritage throughout the course of that year. The legacy of our past has inspired our mission for today and tomorrow. Ziegels Union Church invites you to join us in continuing to provide a beacon of God’s love within our community and the world.”

So where is the Palatinate region?
****Alsace is located on France’s eastern border and on the west bank of the upper Rhine adjacent to Germany and Switzerland. The political, economic and cultural capital as well as largest city of Alsace is Strasbourg. (wikipedia)

Wurttemberg-map-1241-1809 – the Palatinate region

Map, Germany and Italy region, 1806


Church records show that the Clinards were members of the Zeigel Church, 9990 Ziegel Church Road, Breinigsville, Penn. According to “Early History of the Reformed Church in Pennsyvlania” written and published by Daniel Miller in Reading, Penn., in 1906, “Several churches were originally called “Ziegel church,” because they were covered with tiles, the German term for tiles being Ziegel.

In “Journal of the Department of History, Volume VII, 1913-1914, published by The Presbyterian Historical Society of Philadelphia in 1914, “The first organization of Reformed people took place in this region at the “Ziegel Church,” in what is now Weisenberg township. The constituition of the congregation is dated “Macunschy, July 6, 1750.” According to Rev. Wm. Helffrich, for many years pastor of the congregation, the old church recod, now unfortunately burnt, contained baptisms up to the fourth decade of the eighteenth century. The first church was built in 1749.”


“Histories of the Counties of Lehigh and Carbon, In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,”

by Alfred Mathews, published in 1884

On pg. 23-24 it is noted: “Several thousand Germans had entered Pennsylvania prior to 1689. From this year on a steady stream of immigration set in. In 1742 their number was given at one hundred thousand, and in 1783 at two hundred and eighty thousand. They settled in that part of the State which is now included in Lehigh, Northampton, Monroe, Carbon, Berks, parts of Bucks, Montgomery, Lebanon, Lancaster, York, Dauphin, Schuylkill, Northumberland, Snyder, Union, Columbia, Centre, and other counties, ultimately extending even into Maryland, West Virginia and Ohio. They came from Rhenish Bavaria, Baden, Alsace, Wurtemberg, Switzerland and Darmstadt.”

“The early German settlers were farmers, and while lands were cheap, they purchased extensive tracts, always selecting the best. To this day it is well-known fact that all the best lands in the eastern part of the State are owned by the Germans and their descendants, and that frequently the English settlers are displaced by the steady encroachment of the Germans upon them.” (pg. 24)

On page 25, I love the section “Their Sayings and Songs”- It has the Germanic spelling of the saying and then the translation and explanation and includes several pages. Here’s a sampling I found amusing…

Won mer der esel nennt kumt er garennt. “When the ass is named he comes trotting along.” When a person is named in conversation he often comes”

Wie mers mocht so hut mers. “As one makes it, so he has it. That is, a person must expect results in accordance with his actions or deportment.

Wer lauert an der wond, haert sei egne schont. “He that listens by the wall hears his own disgrace.” Eavesdroppers hear their own faults descanted on.

Es kummt net af die graes awh, sunscht kennt en kuh en haws fonga. “It does not depend on the size, otherwise a cow could catch a rabbit.” A small person can often accomplish as much as a large one.

Wer awhalt gewinnt. “Whoever perseveres succeeds.”

De morga schtund hut gold in mund. “The morning hour has its mouth filled with gold.” “Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy and wealthy and wise.” The early bird catches the worm.”

In the section “Their Traits of Character” on page 32, 

the author is complimentary of these hard-working immigrants.

“The greater part of the Pennsylvania Germans are farmers, hardy and industrious tillers of the soil. They are robust, strong, healthy, and hard workers. In many of the rural districts women assist the men in farm-work. Though not seen following the plow, it is nevertheless a common sight to see them engaged in raking hay, binding grain, hoeing and husking corn, milking cows, and the like. If it be a failing, their failing is that they work too much. Ofttimes we have seen young ladies whose parents were worth their thousands engaged as servants, waiting on tables at boarding-school where their brothers were attending as students. While these women may not be experts at the piano, and yet sometimes are, they understand practically how to bake bread, fry beefsteak, and prepare a most sumptuous and tempting meal. Every mother educates her daughters in the art of housekeeping before they are permitted to leave the maternal roof.

~ ~ ~

Why did they leave Pennsylvania and go to North Carolina?

We don’t know exactly what made the Clinards and Hinkles move south, but the volatile Indian unrest might have had something to do with it, or possibly the lure of new land…

The Lehigh County Log Cabin Trail website offers a bit of history on the Indian unrest and is a history tour that people can go visit today:

“The trail begins with the Southern Section, then moves north to the Central Section, continues into the Northern Section and the Blue Mountain (Kittatinny Ridge) forming the northern border of Lehigh County, then returns to three buildings in the northwestern part of the Central Section where the trail ends.

During part of the eighteenth century the Blue Mountain (Kittatinny Ridge) formed the northern edge of the American frontier. In several locations, from 1753-1763, settlers living on the “Frontier of America” in Pennsylvania were attacked by Native Americans resulting in some settlers being killed, tortured, and/or captured.

In 1755, for example, 56 settlers were killed and 10 taken prisoner by Native Americans in today’s Albany Township (Berks County), and Lynn and Heidelberg Townships (Lehigh County). The attacks were rooted in unfair land dealings perpetrated on the Native Americans by the sons of William Penn via the Walking Purchase (1736), land use conflicts during the French and Indian War (1753-1763), and incidents such as the refusal of one colonial settler to provide food for Native Americans needing provisions.

As a result of the hostilities, a series of forts were constructed approximately every 20 miles apart along the mountain between the Delaware River and the Susquehanna River to provide shelter and safety to frontier settlers in times of Native American unrest. Three of these forts were located within (or close to) Lehigh County—Fort Everett just south of the mountain in Lynn Township, Fort Franklin just north of the mountain in Schuylkill County, and Fort Lehigh overlooking the north entrance to Lehigh Gap in Carbon County.

Some parts of the Lehigh County Log Cabin Trail, in the Central Section, are routed along part of our county’s delightful covered bridge tour which adds further historic charm and educational value as one explores the log cabin trail.”

~ ~ ~

North Carolina

The next chronological notation from David Clinard and Ruck Russells’ research notes that:

“Peter Hinkle is licensed to keep a public house (boarding house) in Rowan County, North Carolina, his securities are William Spurgin and Hohn Lewis Beard. Ref: 3:365, Minutes of the Court of the Ordinary, Rowan County, 1763-1774.  (The Clinards and Hinkle family are linked by marriages.)”

According to Clinard and Russell’s research, “About 1774, Philip Kleinert and most of family migrate to North Carolina and settle in the Salisbury area that is home to a large number of Moravians and other German settlers.”

The Hinkles and Clinards must have known each other in Pennsylvania, as Jacob and Daniel both married Hinkle girls and that would seem the reason they followed Peter Hinkle’s family to North Carolina.

More on the Hinkles and Mocks later… along with the families settlement in North Carolina…

Early Bucks Co, Pa map. It’s hard to zoom in close enough to read all the names

Categories: Family History & Genealogy, Family History: CLINARD, NC to Robertson Co, Tenn | Tags: , , , , | 7 Comments

Rambling Fever

I spent the afternoon with one of my Head/Holmes cousins, Nancy Hutcheson, a few weeks ago, and had a great time sharing pictures and memories. She is in her 70s now and took care of her Aunt Jane Head who lived to be over 100. Aunt Jane was the sister to my great-grandfather, Jesse James Head that married Lula Mai Lee.

Nancy’s family lovingly called her “Dot Dot” and it looks like I got my rambling fever from the Head family. I’ll post more photos on her later, but as I plan our September trip to Wyoming this seemed a fun photo to share. Aunt Jane was a spinster school teacher and looks like loved to go on adventures.

My Great Aunt Jane Head on a trip to PIke’s Peak in 1927

Categories: Family History: HEAD, Coopertown, Tennessee | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

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